A kinetic model in pyrolysis of palm empty fruit bunch and bio-oil upgrading for power generation

Main Article Content

R. Junsittiwate
P. Boontor
T.R. Srinophakun


In this work, a comprehensive process model for pyrolysis of palm empty fruit bunch, bio-oil upgrading, and electric power generation can predict the production under various operating conditions. This work proposed a kinetic reaction model of 149 individual reactions. Palm empty fruit bunch was used as a feedstock for pyrolysis at 500 oC. The upgraded bio-oil to gasoline and diesel via hydrotreating process was implemented by a pseudo-first order reaction of lumped bio-oil species followed by the hydrocracking. Dry Empty Fruit Bunch can produce 67.25% of bio-oil, 21.37% of gas, and 11.38% of char. The bio-oil upgraded at 1 kg of wet empty fruit bunch can produce 0.053 kg of gasoline and 0.069 kg of diesel. Electricity generation in the pyrolysis and the upgrading can save electricity up to 72%. The energy conversion efficiency of the pyrolysis combined with the upgrading step was 57.38%. Therefore,  this work is a suitable option for biofuel production from empty fruit bunch.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details



[1] Bridgwater, A.V., Meier, D. and Radlein, D. An overview of fast pyrolysis of biomass, Organic Geochemistry, Vol. 30(12), 1999, pp. 1479-1493.

[2] Peters, J.F., Banks, S.W., Bridgwater, A.V. and Dufour, J. A kinetic reaction model for biomass pyrolysis processes in Aspen Plus, Applied Energy, Vol. 188, 2017. pp. 595-603.

[3] Ruengvilairat, P., Tanatavikorn, H. and Vitidsant, T. Bio-oil production by pyrolysis of oil palm empty fruit bunch in nitrogen and steam atmospheres, Journal of Sustainable Bioenergy Systems, Vol. 2, 2012, pp. 75-85.

[4] Kan, T., Strezov, V. and Evans, T.J. Lignocellulosic biomass pyrolysis: A review of product properties and effects of pyrolysis parameters, Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., Vol. 57, 2016, pp. 1126-40.

[5] Meier, D., Beld, B., Bridgwater, A.V., Elliott, D.C., Oasmaa, A. and Preto, F. State-of-the-art of fast pyrolysis in IEA bioenergy member countries, Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., Vol. 20, 2013, pp. 619-41.

[6] Sharma, A., Pareek, V. and Zhang, D. Biomass Pyrolysis-a Review of Modelling, Process Parameters, and Catalytic Studie, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 50, 2015, pp. 1081-1096.

[7] Sheu, Y.H.E., Anthony, R.G. and Soltes, E.J. Kinetic studies of upgrading pine pyrolytic oil by hydrotreatment, Fuel Processing Technology, Vol. 19(1), 1988, pp. 31-50.

[8] Do, T.X., Lim, Y. and Yeo, H. Techno-economic analysis of bio-oil production process from palm empty fruit bunches, Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 80, 2014, pp. 525-534.

[9] Shemfe, M.B., Gu, S. and Ranganathan, P. Techno-economic performance analysis of biofuel production and miniature electric power generation from fast biomass pyrolysis and bio-oil upgrading, Fuel, Vol. 143, 2015, pp. 361-372.

[10] Blasi, C.D. and Branca, C. Kinetics of primary product formation from wood pyrolysis. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., Vol. 40(23), 2001, pp. 5547-5556.

[11] Miller, R.S. and Bellan, J. A generalized biomass pyrolysis model based on superimposed cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin kinetics, Combust. Sci. Technol., Vol. 126, 1997, pp. 97-137.

[12] Ranzi, E., Cuoci, A., Faravelli, T., Frassoldati, A., Migliavacca, G., Pierucci, S. and Sommariva, S. Chemical kinetics of biomass pyrolysis, Energy and Fuels, Vol. 22(6), 2008, pp. 4292-300.

[13] Anca-Couce, A., Mehrabian, R., Scharler, R. and Obernberger, I. Kinetic scheme of biomass pyrolysis considering secondary charring reactions, Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 87, 2014, pp. 687-696.

[14] Abdullah, N., Gerhauser, H. Bio-oil derived from empty fruit bunches, Fuel, Vol. 87, 2008, pp. 2606-2613.

[15] Jones, S.B., Valkenburg, C., Walton, C.W., Elliott, D.C., Holladay, J.E., Stevens, D.J., et al. Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass Via Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrotreating, and Hydrocracking: A Design Case, 2009, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington.

[16] Sadhukhan, J. and Ng, K.S. Economic and European Union environmental sustainability criteria assessment of bio-oil-based biofuel systems: Refinery Integration Cases, Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, Vol. 50(11), 2011, pp. 6794-6808.

[17] Towler, G. and Sinnott, R. Chemical engineering design, 2nd edition, 2012, Butterworth-Heinemann, United Kingdom.

[18] Do, T.X. and Lim, L. Techno-economic comparison of three energy conversion pathways from empty fruit bunches, Renewable Energy, Vol. 90, 2016, pp. 307-318.

[19] Ng, K.S. and Sadhukhan, J. Techno-economic performance analysis of bio-oil based Fischer-Tropsch and Chp synthesis platform, Biomass and Bioenergy, Vol. 35(7), 2011, pp. 3218-3234.

[20] Bejan, A., Tsatsaronis, G. and Moran, M. Reacting mixtures and combustion, in thermal design and optimization, 1995, Wiley and Sons, New York.