Main Article Content
In this work, a comprehensive process model for pyrolysis of palm empty fruit bunch, bio-oil upgrading, and electric power generation can predict the production under various operating conditions. This work proposed a kinetic reaction model of 149 individual reactions. Palm empty fruit bunch was used as a feedstock for pyrolysis at 500 oC. The upgraded bio-oil to gasoline and diesel via hydrotreating process was implemented by a pseudo-first order reaction of lumped bio-oil species followed by the hydrocracking. Dry Empty Fruit Bunch can produce 67.25% of bio-oil, 21.37% of gas, and 11.38% of char. The bio-oil upgraded at 1 kg of wet empty fruit bunch can produce 0.053 kg of gasoline and 0.069 kg of diesel. Electricity generation in the pyrolysis and the upgrading can save electricity up to 72%. The energy conversion efficiency of the pyrolysis combined with the upgrading step was 57.38%. Therefore, this work is a suitable option for biofuel production from empty fruit bunch.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Articles published in JRAME represent the opinions of the author(s) and should not be construed to reflect the opinions of the Editor and the Publisher.
Copyright in the published manuscripts, including the right to reproduce the article in all forms and media, shall be assigned exclusively to the Publisher.
 Peters, J.F., Banks, S.W., Bridgwater, A.V. and Dufour, J. A kinetic reaction model for biomass pyrolysis processes in Aspen Plus, Applied Energy, Vol. 188, 2017. pp. 595-603.
 Ruengvilairat, P., Tanatavikorn, H. and Vitidsant, T. Bio-oil production by pyrolysis of oil palm empty fruit bunch in nitrogen and steam atmospheres, Journal of Sustainable Bioenergy Systems, Vol. 2, 2012, pp. 75-85.
 Kan, T., Strezov, V. and Evans, T.J. Lignocellulosic biomass pyrolysis: A review of product properties and effects of pyrolysis parameters, Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., Vol. 57, 2016, pp. 1126-40.
 Meier, D., Beld, B., Bridgwater, A.V., Elliott, D.C., Oasmaa, A. and Preto, F. State-of-the-art of fast pyrolysis in IEA bioenergy member countries, Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., Vol. 20, 2013, pp. 619-41.
 Sharma, A., Pareek, V. and Zhang, D. Biomass Pyrolysis-a Review of Modelling, Process Parameters, and Catalytic Studie, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 50, 2015, pp. 1081-1096.
 Sheu, Y.H.E., Anthony, R.G. and Soltes, E.J. Kinetic studies of upgrading pine pyrolytic oil by hydrotreatment, Fuel Processing Technology, Vol. 19(1), 1988, pp. 31-50.
 Do, T.X., Lim, Y. and Yeo, H. Techno-economic analysis of bio-oil production process from palm empty fruit bunches, Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 80, 2014, pp. 525-534.
 Shemfe, M.B., Gu, S. and Ranganathan, P. Techno-economic performance analysis of biofuel production and miniature electric power generation from fast biomass pyrolysis and bio-oil upgrading, Fuel, Vol. 143, 2015, pp. 361-372.
 Blasi, C.D. and Branca, C. Kinetics of primary product formation from wood pyrolysis. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., Vol. 40(23), 2001, pp. 5547-5556.
 Miller, R.S. and Bellan, J. A generalized biomass pyrolysis model based on superimposed cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin kinetics, Combust. Sci. Technol., Vol. 126, 1997, pp. 97-137.
 Ranzi, E., Cuoci, A., Faravelli, T., Frassoldati, A., Migliavacca, G., Pierucci, S. and Sommariva, S. Chemical kinetics of biomass pyrolysis, Energy and Fuels, Vol. 22(6), 2008, pp. 4292-300.
 Anca-Couce, A., Mehrabian, R., Scharler, R. and Obernberger, I. Kinetic scheme of biomass pyrolysis considering secondary charring reactions, Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 87, 2014, pp. 687-696.
 Abdullah, N., Gerhauser, H. Bio-oil derived from empty fruit bunches, Fuel, Vol. 87, 2008, pp. 2606-2613.
 Jones, S.B., Valkenburg, C., Walton, C.W., Elliott, D.C., Holladay, J.E., Stevens, D.J., et al. Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass Via Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrotreating, and Hydrocracking: A Design Case, 2009, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington.
 Sadhukhan, J. and Ng, K.S. Economic and European Union environmental sustainability criteria assessment of bio-oil-based biofuel systems: Refinery Integration Cases, Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, Vol. 50(11), 2011, pp. 6794-6808.
 Towler, G. and Sinnott, R. Chemical engineering design, 2nd edition, 2012, Butterworth-Heinemann, United Kingdom.
 Do, T.X. and Lim, L. Techno-economic comparison of three energy conversion pathways from empty fruit bunches, Renewable Energy, Vol. 90, 2016, pp. 307-318.
 Ng, K.S. and Sadhukhan, J. Techno-economic performance analysis of bio-oil based Fischer-Tropsch and Chp synthesis platform, Biomass and Bioenergy, Vol. 35(7), 2011, pp. 3218-3234.
 Bejan, A., Tsatsaronis, G. and Moran, M. Reacting mixtures and combustion, in thermal design and optimization, 1995, Wiley and Sons, New York.