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Contamination of synthetic dyes in natural bodies of water harms aquatic lives and humans. These dyes must be removed before discharge. Adsorption by the adsorbent, which is of natural origin, low cost, and abundance in Thailand, is gaining popularity. The objective of this research is to develop a composite bead made from montmorillonite clay modified by a cationic surfactant (OMMT) and chitosan (CTS) as an adsorbent for the adsorption of the reactive black 5 dye (RB5) in a batch system. The design of experiments was based on the Box-Behnken approach with three factors (the mass of the surfactant (Tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide, TTAB), OMMT, and CTS) and three levels. In addition, the response surface model was used to investigate the relationship between three factors and to determine the optimum composition. The experimental results revealed that all three factors positively affected the removal of RB5. The dye removal was strongly influenced by the mass of CTS. The optimum composition of the composite bead was found to be 0.33 g TTAB, 0.18 g OMMT, and 0.036 g CTS with the predicted dye removal efficiency of 80.27%. The proposed model can effectively predict the dye uptake under defined adsorption conditions and the use of a composite bead as the adsorbent can reduce the expense of recovery from liquid after the adsorption process.
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