• Varut Emudom Lecturer, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Rangsit University, 52/347 Phaholyothin Rd, Lak Hok, Muang District, Patumthani, 12000
  • Apiwat Suyabodha Lecturer, Department of Automotive Engineering, Rangsit University, 52/347 Phaholyothin Rd, Lak Hok, Muang District, Patumthani, 12000


gamma-typed iron oxides, surface heat flux, magnetic field, pulsating flow, heat transfer rate, average heat transfer coefficients


The method for increasing the rate of heat transfer is presented in this experimental study using the suspensions of magnetic particles which are composed of γ-Fe2O3 magnetic particles (gamma-typed iron oxides) ranging in average diameter size 10-20 nm dispersed in distilled water. At different volume concentrations of 0.50%, 0.75%, 1% and 1.25%, the experiments were conducted in a vertical, internally finned pipe. To increase the heat transfer rate, three different intensities of external magnetic field 800 Gauss (G), 1,600 G, and 2,400 G were applied during the pipe flow experiments. All tests were performed within the Reynolds number (Re ~ 2,900-9,800). The outside surface area of the copper pipe was directly applied by the uniform surface heat flux during heat transfer experiments. As the volume concentration of the magnetic particles and the external magnetic field intensity increased, the average heat transfer coefficients increased. The maximum increase in heat transfer rate can be gained at particle volume concentration of 1.25% and the strength of external magnetic field of 2,400 G as compared to the base case with no application of the external magnetic field (0 G). The pulsating flow with high frequency is another factor which can increase the heat transfer rate in the pipe flow.  At the frequency of 15 Hz, considerable amount of heat transfer rate can be attained.


Esfe MH, Raki HR, Emami MRS, Afrand M. Viscosity and rheological properties of antifreeze base nanofluid containing hybrid nano-powders of MWCNTs and TiO2 under different temperature conditions. Powder Technology 2019;342:808-16. doi: 10.1016/j.powtec.2018.10.032.

Jeong J, Li C, Kwon Y, Lee J, Kim S H, Yun R. Particle shape effect on the viscosity and thermal conductivity of ZnO nanofluids. International Journal of Refrigeration 2013;36(8):2233-41.

Karimi A, Goharkhah M, Ashjaee M, Shafii M B. Thermal conductivity of Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 magnetic nanofluids under the influence of magnetic field. International Journal of Thermophysics 2015;36(10):2720-39. doi: 10.1007/s10765-015-1977-1.

Hojjat M, Etemad S, Bagheri R, Thibault J. Thermal conductivity of non-Newtonian nanofluids experimental data and modeling using neural network. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 2011;54(5-6):1017-23. doi: 10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2010.11.039.

Zhou J, Gu G, Meng X, Shao C. Effect of alternating gradient magnetic field on heat transfer enhancement of magnetorheological fluid flowing through microchannel. Applied Thermal Engineering 2019;150:1116-25. doi: 10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2019.01.057.

Liou TM, Wei TC, Wang CS. Investigation of nanofluids on heat transfer enhancement in a louvered microchannel with lattice Boltzmann method. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 2019;135:751-62. doi: 10.1007/s10973-018-7299-3.

Khodadadi H, Toghraie D, Karimipour A. Effects of nanoparticles to present a statistical model for the viscosity of MgO-water nanofluid. Powder Technology 2019; 342: 166-180. doi: 10.1016/j.powtec.2018.09.076.

Arabpour A, Karimipour A, Toghraie D. The study of heat transfer and laminar flow of kerosene/multi- walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) nanofluid in the microchannel heat sink with slip boundary condition. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 2018;131(2):1553-66. doi: 10.1007/s10973-017-6649-x.

Bahiraei M, Hangi M. Flow and heat transfer characteristics of magnetic nanofluids: a review. Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials 2015;374:125-38. doi: 10.1016/j.jmmm.2014.08.004.

Sun B, Lei W, Yang D. Flow and convective heat transfer characteristics of Fe2O3-water nanofluids inside copper tubes. International Communication of Heat and Mass Transfer 2015;64: 21-8. doi: 10.1016/j.icheatmasstransfer.2015.01.008.

Yarahmadi M, Goudarzi H M, Shafii M B. Experimental investigation into laminar forced convective heat transfer of ferrofluids under constant and oscillating magnetic field with different magnetic field arrangements and oscillation modes. Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 2015;68:601-11. doi: 10.1016/j.expthermflusci.2015.07.002.

Fadaei F, Shahrokhi M, Dehkordi A M, Abbasi Z. Forced-convection heat transfer of ferrofluids in a circular duct partially filled with porous medium in the presence of magnetic field. Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials 2019;475:304-15. doi: 10.1016/j.jmmm.2018.11.032.

Toghraie D, Abdollah M, Pourfatta F, Akbari O, Ruhani B. Numerical investigation of flow and heat transfer characteristics in smooth, sinusoidal and zigzag-shaped microchannel with and without nanofluid. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 2018;131(2):1757-66. doi:10.1007/s10973-017-6624-6.

Rashidi MM, Nasiri M, Khezerloo M, Laraqi N. Numerical investigation of magnetic field effect on mixed convection heat transfer of nanofluid in a channel with sinusoidal walls. Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials 2016;401:159-68. doi: 10.1016/j.jmmm.2015.10.034.

Rosensweig RE. Ferrohydrodynamics. USA: Dover Publications, Inc.; 1997.

Incropera FP, Dewitt DP. Introduction to Heat Transfer. USA: John Wiley & Sons; 1996.

Keyvani M, Afrand M, Toghraie D, Reiszadeh M. An experimental study on thermal conductivity of cerium oxide/ethylene glycol nanofluid: developing a new correlation. Journal of Molecular Liquids 2018;266:211-7. doi: 10.1016/j.molliq.2018.06.010.

Meyer JP, Adio SA, Sharifpur M, Nwosu PN. The viscosity of nanofluids: a review of the theoretical, empirical and numerical models. Heat Transfer Engineering 2016;37(5):387-421. doi: 10.1080/01457632.2015.1057447.






บทความวิจัย (Research Article)