Keywords:Energy-Savings, Carbon Emissions, Water-Energy Nexus, Water Management
Tourism cities use more water and energy resources than other city types. Therefore, the water-energy nexus and CO2 emissions are urgent issues to manage. This paper studies the nexus between water distribution systems and energy usage. It studies the improvements of the water distribution system to reduce water production and estimates energy-related CO2 emission reductions in water supply systems. The water supply systems are improved by installing electric control values in a case study (Pattaya city) at five water supply stations. Moreover, it was found that the original Mabprachan station emitted CO2 as much as 1,247 kgCO2eq/day after adjusting the valves to 873 kgCO2eq/day. The original Bang Lamung station emitted 2,027 kgCO2eq/day after adjusting the valves to 1,294 kgCO2eq/day. The original wreck station was liberated 779 kgCO2eq/day after valve adjustment was reduced to 390 kgCO2eq/day, former Na Jomtien station emitted up to 1,715 kgCO2eq/day after valve adjusted down to 1,590 kgCO2eq/day, old Chaiyaphon Way station emitted up to 1,715 kgCO2eq/day after valve adjustment reduced to 951 kgCO2eq/day. The water supply systems are designed in the EPANET model to simulate and investigate the water supply capability in the service pipes of five water supply stations with flow rates between 800-1,300 m3/hour and pressures between 20-45 m. Results are shown that the water supply reductions decreased the amounts of water production from the original production of 115,200 m3/day to 78,480 m3/day. The electricity consumption is 12,856 kWh/day, and the energy-related CO2 emissions are 7,483 kgCO2eq/day. Adjusting electric control values at the five stations regulates the flow rate and follows the water supply demand. Consequently, the electricity consumption is 8,759 kWh/day. Total electricity consumption and CO2 emissions are reduced by 1,495,400 MWh/year and 870,530 tCO2eq/year, respectively.
Cao T, Wang S, Chen B. The energy-water nexus in interregional economic trade from both consumption and production perspectives. Energy Procedia 2018;152:281-6.
Jin P, Fang D, Chen B. Water-energy nexus based on modified multiregional input-output model within China. Energy Procedia 2019;158:4092-8.
Xu W, Xie Y, Cai Y, Ji L, Wang B, Yang Z. Environmentally-extended input-output and ecological network analysis for Energy-Water-CO2 metabolic system in China. Science of the Total Environment 2021;758:143931.
Ramos HM, Vieira F, Covas DI. Energy efficiency in a water supply system: Energy consumption and CO2 emission. Water Science Engineering 2010;3(3):331-40.
Phetsasithorn A, editors. Software development for energy assessments in water networks. Proceedings of the 26th National Convention on Civil Engineering; 2021 Jun 23-25; Phitsanulok, Thailand. Bangkok: King Mongkut's Institute of Technology Ladkrabang; 2021.
Ramos HM, Morillo JG, Rodríguez Diaz JA, Carravetta A, McNabola A. Sustainable water-energy nexus towards developing countries’ water sector efficiency. Energies 2021;14(12):3525.
Aly SM, Awad ME, Mousa MA. Design of flexible and sustainable water networks. Turkish Journal of Computer and Mathematics Education (TURCOMAT) 2021;12(13): 6499-506.
Castro-Gama M, Pan Q, Lanfranchi EA, Jonoski A, Solomatine DP. Pump scheduling for a Large Water Distribution Network. Milan, Italy. Procedia Engineering 2017;186:436-43.
Engström RE, Howells M, Destouni G, Bhatt V, Bazilian M, Rogner HH. Connecting the resource nexus to basic urban service provision – with a focus on water-energy interactions in New York City. Sustainable Cities and Society 2017;31:83-94.
EPANET. EPANET 2.2 User’s Manuals [Internet]. 2020 [cited 2020 Aug 12]. Available from: https://epanet22.readthedocs.io/en/latest/.
Abdy Sayyed MAH, Gupta R, Tanyimboh TT. Modelling pressure deficient water distribution networks in EPANET. Procedia Engineering 2014;89:626-31.
Thailand Greenhouse Gas Management Organization. Calculation for emission factor of electricity generation and electricity consumption [Internet]. 2017 [cited 2022 Aug 1]. Available from: https://ghgreduction.tgo.or.th/th/tver-method/tver-tool/energy/item/483-calculation-for-emission-factor-of-electricity-generation-and-electricity-consumption.html. (In Thai)
Report of PCY [Internet]. Translation of Pattaya City yearly report 2019. 2019 [cited 2020 Jan 22]; [138 about screen]. Available from: https://tinyurl.com/8bhk2cea
Copyright (c) 2023 Kasem Bundit University
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
The article has been published in Kasem Bundit Engineering Journal (KBEJ) is the copyright of the Kasem Bundit University. Do not bring all of the messages or republished except permission from the university.
If the article is published as an article that infringes the copyright or has the wrong content the author of article must be responsible.