Keywords:Black kaempferia, Drying, Microwave, Vacuum
The objective of this research was to study on drying kinetics, specific energy consumption, qualities were color and water activity, antioxidants and antioxidant activities, as well as mathematical modeling of drying of black kaempferia. The moisture content of black kaempferia was reduced from 121.58% to 7.47-12.18% d.b. by combined vacuum and microwave technique at three levels of drying pressure, i.e., atmospheric pressure, absolute pressure of 20 and 5 kPa using a microwave power of 800 Watts. The study found that the shortest drying time of 150 minutes using an absolute pressure of 5 kPa. Anyway, drying at 20 kPa absolute pressure had the lowest specific energy consumption of 50.73 MJ/kgwater evap. and the lowest total color difference is 8.21. However, all experimental conditions had water activity within the standard, not more than 0.6, total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity were decreased compared to fresh black kaempferia. Drying of black kaempferia at absolute pressure of 5 kPa had the highest total phenolic compounds at 2.73 mg GAE/g f.w. and the highest antioxidant activity of 1.00 mg AAE/g f.w., which were higher than sun drying. Midilli's empirical mathematical model is suitable to predict drying kinetics for drying black kaempferia. It has the highest coefficient of determination (R2) 0.99936 and the lowest root mean square error (RMSE) 0.00737.
Department of Agricultural Extension. Krachaidum production for export. Agricultural Extension Journal 2020:295:27-9. (In Thai)
National Science and Technology Development Agency. Project to study the market opportunity of targeted. Thai Herbs Journal 2018:61-72. (In Thai)
Li Z, Raghavan GSV, Orsat V. Optimal power control strategies in microwave drying. Journal of Food Engineering 2010;99:263-8.
Lv HF, Ma XX, Zhang B, Chen XF, Liu XM, Fang CH, et al. Microwave-vacuum drying of round bamboo: a study of the physical properties. Construction and Building Materials 2019;211:44-51.
Songsermpong S. Microwave Processing of Food. Bangkok: Danex Intercorporation; 2016. (In Thai)
Chahbani A, Fakhfakh N, Baltia MA, Mabrouk M, El-Hatmi H, Zouari N, et al. Microwave drying effects on drying kinetics, bioactive compounds andantioxidant activity of green peas (Pisum sativum L.). Food Bioscience 2018;25:32-8.
Keser D, Guclu G, Kelebek H, Keskin H, Soysal Y, Sekerli YE, et al. Characterization of aroma and phenoliccomposition of carrot (Daucus carota ‘Nantes’) powders obtained from intermittent microwavedrying using GC–MS and LC–MS/MS. Food and Bioproducts Processing. 2020;119:350-9.
National Bureau of Agricaultural Commodity and Food Standards. Thai agricultural Standard. TAS 3005 PART 2-2020. (In Thai)
AOAC. Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analysis Chemists.17th ed. Maryland: Gaithersburg; 2000.
Manangan W, Witinantakit K. Water lily drying using pulsed vacuum-infrared combined with silica sand embedding, Kasem Bundit Engineering Journal 2020;10(3):84-98. (In Thai)
Tirawanichakul S, Chanchiew S, Tirawanichakul Y. Pennywort drying using infrared radiation drying kinetics, energy consumption and quality aspect. KKU Research Journal 2013;18(2):311-24. (In Thai)
Zhoua YH, Pei YP, Sutar PP, Liu DH, Deng LZ, Duan X, et al. Pulsed vacuum drying of banana: Effects of ripeness on drying kinetics and physicochemical properties and related mechanism. Food and Science Technology 2022;161:113362.
Devahastin S. Drying of Foods and Biomaterials. Bangkok: Top Publishing; 2012. (In Thai)
Magalhaes LM, Segundo MA, Reis S, Lima JL. Methodological aspects about in vitro evaluation of antioxidant properties. Analytica Chimica Acta 2008;613(1):1-19.
Ainsworth EA, Gillespie KM. Estimation of total phenolic content and other oxidation substrates in plant tissues using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Nature Protocol 2007;2(4): 875-7.
Rungsawang S, Jaekhom S, Uengkimbuan N, Witinantakit K. Shiitake mushroom drying using vacuum and infrared radiation technique. SWU Engineering Journal 2019;14(3):1-13. (In Thai)
Lui Q, Bakker-Arkema FW. Stochastic modeling of grain drying: part 2 mode development. Journal of Agricultural Research 1997;66:275-80.
Diamante LM, & Munro PA. Mathematical modeling of the thin layer solar drying of sweet potato slices. Solar Energy 1993;51:271-6.
Doymaz I. Convective air drying characteristics of thin layer carrots. Journal of Food Engineering 2004;61:359-64.
Togrul IT, Pehlivan D. Mathematical modeling of soar drying of apricots in thin layers. Journal of Food Engineering 2002;55:209-16.
Midilli A, Kucuk H, Yapar Z. A new model for single- layer drying. Drying Technology 2002;20(7):1503-13.
Faruq AA, Zhang M, Fan D. Modeling the dehydration and analysis of dielectric properties of ultrasound and microwave combined vacuum frying apple slices. Drying Technology 2019;37(3):409-23.
Song C, Wu T, Li Z, Li J, Chen H. Analysis of the heat transfer characteristics of blackberries during microwave vacuum heating. Journal of Food Engineering 2018;22:70-8.
Cuccurullo G, Giordano L, Metallo A, Cinquanta L. Drying rate control in microwave assisted processing of sliced apples. Biosystems Engineering 2018;180:24-30.
Poogungploy P. Effect of black galingale drying by microwave-hot air combination on drying behavior, temperature, color, shrinkage and specific energy consumption. Journal of Science & Technology MSU 2017;36(6):661-7.
Zeng S, Wang B, Lv W, Wu Y. Effects of microwave power and hot air temperature on the physicochemical properties of dried ginger (Zingiber officinale) using microwave hot-air rolling drying. Food Chemistry 2023;404(Pt B):134741.
Copyright (c) 2023 Kasem Bundit University
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
The article has been published in Kasem Bundit Engineering Journal (KBEJ) is the copyright of the Kasem Bundit University. Do not bring all of the messages or republished except permission from the university.
If the article is published as an article that infringes the copyright or has the wrong content the author of article must be responsible.