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In this work, the natural rubber (NR) composites filled with two wastes from rice cultivation, such as rice husk (RH) and rice straw (RS) were studied. Different sizes of each waste were prepared which were RH-S, RH-L, RS-S, and RS-L and used as fillers in composites. The effects of filler types and contents (15, 30 and 45 phr) on the physical and mechanical properties of NR composites were studied. The results showed that NR composites reinforced with RS and RH had lower densities than that of neat NR. The types, sizes, and contents of fillers showed minor effects on the composite’s density. Interestingly, due to the difference in the chemical composition of RS and RH, the trend of water absorption and an oil absorption of NR composites filled with RSs and RHs were different. RSs/NR composites showed a higher percentage of water absorption but RHs/NR systems showed higher oil uptake. Using larger size of fillers (RS-L and RH-L) in composites displayed higher tendency of both water and oil absorptions than that using smaller fillers. The percentage of water absorption of all types of composites was higher than that of NR sheet. This value increased with increasing filler content. In contrast, the addition of filler loading resulted in decreasing the percentage of oil absorption of all types of composites. Comparing with neat NR, Young’s moduli of all types of composite were found improved with an increase of filler loading. All RSs/NR composites were dramatically higher in effectiveness. However, a decrement of tensile strength of all composites was observed. SEM micrographs clearly revealed the lack of interfacial interaction between fillers and NR that showed the gap and hole. These evidences supported the composite properties that mentioned above.
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