Physical, Chemical and Microbiological Quality of Opaque-Plastic Bottled Drinking Water Distributed in Chon Buri Province, Thailand

Main Article Content

Subuntith Nimrat
Apinya Jitaree
Verapong Vuthiphandchai

Abstract

This study was conducted to assess physical quality (label information, water characteristic, odor, manufacturing date/expiry date (MFD/EXD), and pH), chemical quality (total solids) and microbiological quality (coliform and fecal coliform bacteria, E. coli) of 45 opaque-plastic bottled drinking water sold in Mueng district, Chon Buri province. All tested opaque-plastic bottled drinking water products were clear, odorless, and had pH and total solid values ranging from 5.53-7.51 and 1.0-147.0 mg/L, respectively. In addition, all samples represented coliform and fecal coliform bacteria less than 2 MPN/100 mL and were devoid of E. coli. In accordance with the standard for drinking water in sealed container imposed by Ministry of Public Health, opaque-plastic bottled drinking water (8 samples; 17.8%) did not meet the criterion because of pH values lower than standard value (6.5–8.5). Also, all drinking water samples (100%) did not abide by the standard due to the absence of MFD/EXD on the labels with the presence of only label information related to company name and place of manufacture. Therefore, consumers should consciously choose the opaque bottled drinking water products with guarantee of quality.

Article Details

How to Cite
1.
Nimrat S, Jitaree A, Vuthiphandchai V. Physical, Chemical and Microbiological Quality of Opaque-Plastic Bottled Drinking Water Distributed in Chon Buri Province, Thailand. J Appl Res Sci Tech [Internet]. 2021 Oct. 28 [cited 2024 Jun. 16];20(2):102-13. Available from: https://ph01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/rmutt-journal/article/view/244157
Section
Research Articles

References

Varakamin S. Water for life. Bangkok: Samcharoen Panich; 2006. Thai.

Rylander R. Drinking water constituents and disease. J Nutr. 2008;138:423S-25S.

Choudhary AK, Das S, Jha JN. Improvement of properties of clay subgrade using waste LDPE strip reinforcement. In: Singh H, Garg P, Kaur I, editors. ICSWMD 2018, LNCE 21. Switzerland: Springer Nature AG; 2019. p. 103-15.

World Health Organization. Guidelines for drinking water quality. 4th ed. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2017.

Food and Drug Administration. Notification of Ministry of Health, No. 256 (2002) entitled “The water for consumption in sealed container” (No. 4) [Internet]. 2002 [cited 2020 Dec 25] Availability from: http://elib.fda.moph.go.th/elib/cgibin/opacexe?lang=1&cat=gen&pat. Thai.

Krishnan RR, Dharmaraj K, Kumari BDR. A comparative study on the physico-chemical and bacterial analysis of drinking, borewell and sewage water in the three different places of Sivakasi. J Environ Biol. 2007;28:105-8.

Pumpuang A, Cheewaphan A, Amnouypon J, Supasirisun Y, Teawrattanakul T, Pidet N, et al. [Prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility profile of fecal coliform isolated from beverage sold in Sangkhalok community]. Vajira Medical Journal: Journal of Urban Medicine. 2017;61(2):75-82. Thai.

Jonganokpone C. [Physical assessment and determination of bacterial contamination of locally drinking water in sealed containers and packaged ice sold in Mahasarakham province, Thailand]. Academic Journal of Community Public Health. 2020;6(4):14-26. Thai.

Nimrat S, Vuthiphandchai V. [Physical and microbiological qualities of clear bottled drinking water distributed in Nan province]. Journal of Science & Technology, Ubon Ratchathani University. 2014;16(3):57-64. Thai.

Nimrat S, Suechamnongkitchakarn N, Supannapan K, Vuthiphandchai V. [Assessment of physical, pH and microbiological qualities of bottled drinking water produced in Burirum province, Thailand]. RMUTP Research Journal Science & Technology. 2015;9(2):32-43. Thai.

Nimrat S, Supannapan K, Butkhot N, Vuthiphandchai V. [Standard of bottled drinking water distributed in Aug Thong]. RMUTP Research Journal. 2016;10(2):135-47. Thai.

Nimrat S, Supannapan K, Vuthiphandchai V. [Quality of bottled drinking water distributed in Rayong province, Thailand]. Journal of Science and Technology Mahasarakham University. 2016;35(5):538-47. Thai.

Chonburi Province. Chonburi Province [Internet]. 2017 [cited 2020 Dec 25] Availability from: http://www.chonburi.go.th/website/main/web_index. Thai.

Nimrat S, Banjertjaradlert H, Vuthiphandchai V. [Assessment of quality of bottled drinking water distributed in Chon Buri province]. Journal of Science and Technology Mahasarakham University. 2013;33(5):454-9. Thai.

American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association & Water Environment Federation. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. 22nd ed. Baltimore: American Public Health Association; 2012.

Kornacki JL, Johnson JL. Chapter 8: Enterobacteriaceae, coliforms, and Escherichia coli as quality and safety indicators. In: Downes FP, Ito K, editors. Compendium of methods for the microbiological examination of foods. 4th ed. Washington DC: American Public Health Association; 2001. p. 69-82.

Bureau of Food, Food and Drug Administration, Ministry of Public Health. Notification of the Ministry of Public Health No. 383, B.E 2560 (2017), Re: labeling of pre-packaged foods (No.2) [Internet]. 2017 [cited 2020 Dec 25] Availability from: http://www.ratchakitcha.soc.go.th/ DATA/PDF/2560/ E/097/24.PDF. Thai.

Bureau of Food, Food and Drug Administration, Ministry of Public Health. (1981). Notification of the Ministry of Public Health (No.61) B.E. 2524 (1981) Re: Drinking water in sealed containers [Internet]. 1981 [cited 2020 Dec 25] Availability from: http://www.ratchakitcha.soc.go.th/DATA/PDF/2524/D/157/52.PDF. Thai.

Nimrat S, Vuthiphandchai V. [Physical and microbiological qualities of clear and opaque bottled drinking water distributed in Ayutthaya province]. Journal of Science & Technology Ubon Ratchathani University. 2017;19(3):193-207. Thai.

Nimrat S, Khunjeng N, Vuthiphandchai V. [Characteristic and some qualities of 5-year expired drinking water in clear plastic bottles]. Rajamangala University of Technology Tawan-ok Research Journal. 2018;11(2):122-30. Thai.

Reid R. 7 reasons why acidic water is bad for you [Internet]. 2019 [cited 2020 Dec 25] Availability from: https://www.tyentusa.com/blog/acidic-water-negative-effects/.

Private Wells Series. pH- Acidity of Private Drinking Water Wells. Rhode Island: Rhode Island and Department of Health and the University of Rhode Island Cooperative Extension Department of Natural Resources Science; 2003.

Mathawaraporn B. Case study: Hazard from consumption of opaque-plastic bottled beverages [Internet]. [cited 2020 Nov 4] Availability from: http://knowledge.ocpb.go.th/download/article/article_20190409104742.pdf. Thai.

Shittu OB, Olaitan JO, Amusa TS. Physico-chemical and bacteriological analyses of water used for drinking and swimming purposes in Abeokuta, Nigeria. J Biomed. 2008;11:285-90.

Rakkamon T, Chaimay B, Inraksa S, Rachasong W. [Quality of drinking water from water cooler at Thaksin University, Phatthalung campus]. Thaksin Journal. 2012;15(2):18-26. Thai.