Main Article Content
This research aims to compare the particle nucleation mechanism in an emulsion polymerization for polymer particle preparation. The recent particle formation as polymerization induced self-assembly (PISA) was used to produce the polymer particles containing positive charge on their surface compared with the well-known mechanism as homogeneous nucleation in emulsion conventional polymerization (emulsion CRP) without an emulsifier. It is well-known that the PISA can be used in various controlled/living polymerization techniques. In this work, the polymer particle was polymerized via emulsion iodine transfer polymerization (emulsion ITP). The positive charge polymer chain of 12 repeating units of poly([2-(methacryloyloxy) ethyl] trimethyl–ammonium chloride)12- iodide (PMTMA12-I) was firstly polymerized before being used as macro-chain transfer agent and emulsifier in the emulsion ITP of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) to obtain block copolymer of PMTMA12-b-PMMA508. The particle size and particle size distribution, the positive charge on their surface and polymerization rate were investigated for both mechanisms. It was found that using emulsion ITP, the polymerization rate was not different from emulsion CRP. In addition, the particle size (227 nm) and particle size distribution (PDI = 1.11) were smaller and narrower for emulsion ITP than those of emulsion CRP (232 nm and PDI = 1.22, respectively). It may be due to a higher positive charge (+59.86 mV) of emulsion ITP than it's (+39.65 mV) of emulsion CRP. For all results indicated that emulsion ITP represents high performance for PMTMA12-b-PMMA508 particle preparation.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
2. Litt MH, Hsieh BR, Krieger IM, Chen TT, Lu HL. Low surface energy polymers and surface-active block polymers: II. Rigid microporous foams by emulsion polymerization. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science. 1987;115(2):312-29.
3. Mock EB, De Bruyn H, Hawkett BS, Gilbert RG, Zukoski CF. Synthesis of Anisotropic Nanoparticles by Seeded Emulsion Polymerization. Langmuir. 2006;22(9):4037-43.
4. Chern C-S. Principles and Applications of Emulsion Polymerization. New Jersey:John Wiley & Sons, Inc,. 2008.
5. Lovell PAE-A, M.S. Emulsion Polymerization and Emulsion Polymers. West Sussex:John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 1997.
6. ไชยสัตย์ อ. บทบาทของสารลดแรงตึงผิวในการสังเคราะห์พอลิเมอร์แบบอิมัลชัน. Burapha Sci J. 2013;18(1):240-8.
7. Thickett S. Emulsion polymerization: State of the art in kinetics and mechanisms. Polymer. 2007;48:6965-91.
8. Reynolds WB. Emulsion polymerization. Journal of Chemical Education. 1949;26(3):135.
9. Gilbert RG. Emulsion Polymerization:A Mechanistic Approach. London:Academic press. 1995.
10. Ferguson CJ, Hughes RJ, Pham BTT, Hawkett BS, Gilbert RG, Serelis AK, et al. Effective ab Initio Emulsion Polymerization under RAFT Control. Macromolecules. 2002;35(25):9243-5.
11. Ferguson CJ, Hughes RJ, Nguyen D, Pham BTT, Gilbert RG, Serelis AK, et al. Ab Initio Emulsion Polymerization by RAFT-Controlled Self-Assembly. Macromolecules. 2005;38(6):2191-204.
12. Chiefari J, Chong YK, Ercole F, Krstina J, Jeffery J, Le TPT, et al. Living Free-Radical Polymerization by Reversible Addition−Fragmentation Chain Transfer: The RAFT Process. Macromolecules. 1998;31(16):5559-62.
13. Karagoz B, Esser L, Duong HT, Basuki JS, Boyer C, Davis TP. Polymerization-Induced Self-Assembly (PISA) – control over the morphology of nanoparticles for drug delivery applications. Polymer Chemistry. 2014;5(2):350-5.
14. Warren NJ, Armes SP. Polymerization-Induced Self-Assembly of Block Copolymer Nano-objects via RAFT Aqueous Dispersion Polymerization. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 2014;136(29):10174-85.
15. Sue-eng S, Boonchuwong T, Chaiyasat P, Okubo M, Chaiyasat A. Preparation of stable poly(methacrylic acid)-b-polystyrene emulsion by emulsifier-free emulsion iodine transfer polymerization (emulsion ITP) with self-assembly nucleation. Polymer. 2017;110:124-30.