Main Article Content
Photoelectrocatalytic techniques have been developed for the removal of widely contaminated organic substances in the environment, especially the development of semiconductor film preparation on the electrode substrate. The main objective of this research is to develop the preparation of WO3/BiVO4 thin film on conductive glass (ITO) for application in photoelectrocatalytic cells to remove organic dyes. WO3 film fabrication on the ITO substrate was developed using an electrodeposition technique and then calcined at 500 °C for 30 min. The second BiVO4 film layer was immobilized on the ITO/WO3 surface using a dip coating method and calcination continued at 550 °C for 1 h. The optical properties and electrochemical resistance of the fabricated ITO/WO3/BiVO4 electrode were examined for use in oxidation of water solutions. The ITO/WO3/BiVO4 electrode was applied to the removal of organic dye under photocatalytic, electrocatalytic, and photoelectrocatalytic mechanisms. We succeeded in preparing the ITO/WO3/BiVO4 and understanding its characteristics and photoelectrocatalytic activities. We can confirm the absorption properties in the visible light, and the bandgap energy value of WO3 and BIVO4 of 2.8 and 2.4 eV, respectively. We found that immobilizing BiVO4 on the WO3 layer significantly increased the efficiency of the electron transfer rate at the interfacial electrode/electrolyte surface. Importantly, it can confirm the effectiveness of the removal of organic dyes in aqueous solutions under the PEC mechanism, which was 4 and 10 times higher than that of electrocatalytic and photocatalytic mechanism, respectively. This research can be further developed for use in a wastewater treatment system in the dye industry and in industries that produce other organic contaminants.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
2. Murugan C, Bhojanaa KB, Ong W-J, Jothivenkatachalam K, Pandikumar A. Improving hole mobility with the heterojunction of graphitic carbon nitride and titanium dioxide via soft template process in photoelectrocatalytic water splitting. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. 2019;44(59):30885-98.
3. Wang L, Wei Y, Fang R, Wang J, Yu X, Chen J, et al. Photoelectrocatalytic CO2 reduction to ethanol via graphite-supported and functionalized TiO2 nanowires photocathode. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry. 2020;391:112368.
4. Mafa PJ, Kuvarega AT, Mamba BB, Ntsendwana B. Photoelectrocatalytic degradation of sulfamethoxazole on g-C3N4/BiOI/EG p-n heterojunction photoanode under visible light irradiation. Applied Surface Science. 2019;483:506-20.
5. Hunge YM, Yadav AA, Kulkarni SB, Mathe VL. A multifunctional ZnO thin film based devices for photoelectrocatalytic degradation of terephthalic acid and CO2 gas sensing applications. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical. 2018;274:1-9.
6. Huda A, Suman PH, Torquato LDM, Silva BF, Handoko CT, Gulo F, et al. Visible light-driven photoelectrocatalytic degradation of acid yellow 17 using Sn3O4 flower-like thin films supported on Ti substrate (Sn3O4/TiO2/Ti). Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry. 2019;376:196-205.
7. Hunge YM, Mahadik MA, Patil VL, Pawar AR, Gadakh SR, Moholkar AV, et al. Visible light assisted photoelectrocatalytic degradation of sugarcane factory wastewater by sprayed CZTS thin films. Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids. 2017;111:176-81.
8. Shah BR, Patel UD. Aqueous pollutants in water bodies can be photocatalytically reduced by TiO2 nano-particles in the presence of natural organic matters. Separation and Purification Technology. 2019;209:748-55.
9. Wang N, Pan Y, Dai W, Wu S, Zhu Y-a, Zhang E. Dealloying synthesis of SnO2TiO2 solid solution and composite nanoparticles with excellent photocatalytic activity. Applied Surface Science. 2018;457:200-7.
10. Yu J, Zou J, Xu P, He Q. Three-dimensional photoelectrocatalytic degradation of the opaque dye acid fuchsin by Pr and Co co-doped TiO2 particle electrodes. Journal of Cleaner Production. 2020;251:119744.
11. Liu W, Yang Y, Zhan F, Li D, Li Y, Tang X, et al. Ultrafast fabrication of nanostructure WO3 photoanodes by hybrid microwave annealing with enhanced photoelectrochemical and photoelectrocatalytic activities. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. 2018;43(18):8770-8.
12. Fu Y, Dong C-L, Zhou W, Lu Y-R, Huang Y-C, Liu Y, et al. A ternary nanostructured α-Fe2O3/Au/TiO2 photoanode with reconstructed interfaces for efficient photoelectrocatalytic water splitting. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental. 2020;260:118206.
13. Iervolino G, Tantis I, Sygellou L, Vaiano V, Sannino D, Lianos P. Photocurrent increase by metal modification of Fe2O3 photoanodes and its effect on photoelectrocatalytic hydrogen production by degradation of organic substances. Applied Surface Science. 2017;400:176-83.
14. Madusanka HTDS, Herath HMAMC, Fernando CAN. High photoresponse performance of self-powered n-Cu2O/p-CuI heterojunction based UV-Visible photodetector. Sensors and Actuators A: Physical. 2019;296:61-9.
15. Abdelfatah M, Ismail W, El-Shaer A. Low cost inorganic white light emitting diode based on submicron ZnO rod arrays and electrodeposited Cu2O thin film. Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing. 2018;81:44-7.
16. Rosas-Laverde NM, Pruna A, Cembrero J, Orozco-Messana J, Manjón FJ. Performance of graphene oxide-modified electrodeposited ZnO/Cu2O heterojunction solar cells. Boletín de la Sociedad Española de Cerámica y Vidrio. 2019;58(6):263-73.
17. Kiama N, Ponchio C. Photoelectrocatalytic performance improvement of BiVO4 thin film fabrication via effecting of calcination temperature strategy. Surface and Coatings Technology. 2020;383:125257.
18. Li F, Leung DYC. Highly enhanced performance of heterojunction Bi2S3/BiVO4 photoanode for photoelectrocatalytic hydrogen production under solar light irradiation. Chemical Engineering Science. 2020;211:115266.
19. Guo Z, Wei J, Zhang B, Ruan M, Liu Z. Construction and photoelectrocatalytic performance of TiO2/BiVO4 heterojunction modified with cobalt phosphate. Journal of Alloys and Compounds. 2020;821:153225.
20. Yun G, Balamurugan M, Kim H-S, Ahn K-S, Kang SH. Role of WO3 Layers Electrodeposited on SnO2 Inverse Opal Skeletons in Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C. 2016;120(11):5906-15.
21. Kangkun N, Kiama N, Saito N, Ponchio C. Optical properties and photoelectrocatalytic activities improvement of WO3 thin film fabricated by fixed-potential deposition method. Optik. 2019;198:163235.
22. Martins AS, Cordeiro-Junior PJM, Bessegato GG, Carneiro JF, Zanoni MVB, Lanza MRdV. Electrodeposition of WO3 on Ti substrate and the influence of interfacial oxide layer generated in situ: A photoelectrocatalytic degradation of propyl paraben. Applied Surface Science. 2019;464:664-72.
23. Sonu, Dutta V, Sharma S, Raizada P, Hosseini-Bandegharaei A, Kumar Gupta V, et al. Review on augmentation in photocatalytic activity of CoFe2O4 via heterojunction formation for photocatalysis of organic pollutants in water. Journal of Saudi Chemical Society. 2019;23(8):1119-36.
24. Su J, Guo L, Bao N, Grimes CA. Nanostructured WO3/BiVO4 Heterojunction Films for Efficient Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting. Nano Letters. 2011;11(5):1928-33.
25. Du H, Pu W, Wang Y, Yan K, Feng J, Zhang J, et al. Synthesis of BiVO4/WO3 composite film for highly efficient visible light induced photoelectrocatalytic oxidation of norfloxacin. Journal of Alloys and Compounds. 2019;787:284-94.
26. Zeng Q, Lyu L, Gao Y, Chang S, Hu C. A self-sustaining monolithic photoelectrocatalytic/photovoltaic system based on a WO3/BiVO4 photoanode and Si PVC for efficiently producing clean energy from refractory organics degradation. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental. 2018;238:309-17.
27. Emin S, de Respinis M, Fanetti M, Smith W, Valant M, Dam B. A simple route for preparation of textured WO3 thin films from colloidal W nanoparticles and their photoelectrochemical water splitting properties. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental. 2015;166-167:406-12.
28. Zhou L, Wu Y, Wang L, Yang Y, Na Y. Excellent performance of water oxidation at low bias potential achieved by transparent WO3/BiVO4 photoanode integrated with molecular nickel porphyrin. Inorganic Chemistry Communications. 2019;107:107480.
29. S M, Margoni MM, Ramamurthi K, Babu RR, V G. Hydrothermal assisted growth of vertically aligned platelet like structures of WO3 films on transparent conducting FTO substrate for electrochromic performance. Applied Surface Science. 2018;449:77-91.
30. Kolhe PS, Mutadak P, Maiti N, Sonawane KM. Synthesis of WO3 nanoflakes by hydrothermal route and its gas sensing application. Sensors and Actuators A: Physical. 2020;304:111877.
31. Hunge YM, Yadav AA, Mahadik MA, Mathe VL, Bhosale CH. A highly efficient visible-light responsive sprayed WO3/FTO photoanode for photoelectrocatalytic degradation of brilliant blue. Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers. 2018;85:273-81.
32. Poongodi S, Kumar PS, Mangalaraj D, Ponpandian N, Meena P, Masuda Y, et al. Electrodeposition of WO3 nanostructured thin films for electrochromic and H2S gas sensor applications. Journal of Alloys and Compounds. 2017;719:71-81.
33. Kwong WL, Nakaruk A, Koshy P, Sorrell CC. Photoelectrochemical properties of WO3 nanoparticulate thin films prepared by carboxylic acid-assisted electrodeposition. Thin Solid Films. 2013;544:191-6.
34. Wei Z, Hai Z, Akbari MK, Zhao Z, Sun Y, Hyde L, et al. Surface functionalization of wafer-scale two-dimensional WO3 nanofilms by NM electrodeposition (NM = Ag, Pt, Pd) for electrochemical H2O2 reduction improvement. Electrochimica Acta. 2019;297:417-26.
35. Zeng Q, Li J, Bai J, Li X, Xia L, Zhou B. Preparation of vertically aligned WO3 nanoplate array films based on peroxotungstate reduction reaction and their excellent photoelectrocatalytic performance. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental. 2017;202:388-96.
36. Xia T, Chen M, Xiao L, Fan W, Mao B, Xu D, et al. Dip-coating synthesis of P-doped BiVO4 photoanodes with enhanced photoelectrochemical performance. Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers. 2018;93:582-9.
37. Venkatesan R, Velumani S, Ordon K, Makowska-Janusik M, Corbel G, Kassiba A. Nanostructured bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) thin films for efficient visible light photocatalysis. Materials Chemistry and Physics. 2018;205:325-33.