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The issue of particulate matter less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5) has been concerning and important for many countries and Thailand. Many studies in Thailand have focused on the contribution of source types determined by a receptor model, the relationship between PM2.5 and meteorological factors, and the impacts of PM2.5 on human health. In terms of enforcement and management, it is important to know where the pollution comes from. A statistical technique, Bivariate Polar Plot (BVP), has been used to determine the potential source areas affecting air quality and PM2.5 levels at the monitoring location. However, fewer studies are using the BVP in Thailand, especially in rural areas with many air pollution sources surrounding the monitoring station. Moreover, most studies used long-term monitoring data in the analysis. This study was conducted in Ban Phai District, Khon Kaen Province. The results show that 6 days of the 13 days monitoring period with the concentration of PM2.5 particulate matter exceeds 50 µg/m3, the 24-hour average standard of Thailand, and is the interim target 2 (IT-2) of the World Health Organization (WHO). In addition, the results showed that the analysis of short-term hourly monitoring data of PM2.5 could reveal changes in concentrations related to meteorological factors and atmospheric stability. The BVP technique identified the potential source areas of PM2.5 over each period, and their locations changed depending on emission and meteorological factors of the corresponding period. The potential source areas are on the north side of the highway, Ban Phai District's urban area, and the open burning area on the east side. The pollution sources on the southern side of the air quality monitoring station do not exhibit as a potential source.
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