Preparation of Mao (Antidesma thwaitesianum Muell.Arg) Extract Niosomes for Skin Care Product

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Supakarn Promkhan
Chanidda Wongbasg
Sukrichaya Hemathulin


The objective of this research was to utilize the residual black Mao pulp and seeds from the production process of Mao products. In the niosome form of Mao extract and applied in skin lotion product. The extracting the residual black Mao pulp with 50% concentration of ethanol solution, it was found that 100 ml of the extract contained all phenolic compound, total anthocyanin and antioxidant capacity compared to ascorbic acid at the highest of 3,725.27 mg gallic acid, 28.57 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside and 3,570.33 mg ascorbic acid, respectively. The Mao extract was developed into niosomes by Chloroform film method and the particle sizes were reduced by Ultrasonic probe and Microfluidizer. The ratio of Tween 60 and cholesterol at 30:70 was used. The particle size of Mao extract niosome was 252.19 nm and polydispersity index (PDI) was 0.26. Niosomes colloid of 2% Mao extract had antioxidant activity at 84.11 mg ascorbic acid/100ml, total phenolic acid at 78.10 mg gallic acid/100ml, total anthocyanin at 3.78 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside/100ml and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) at 7,775.71 µmol TE/100ml. From the application of Mao extract niosomes in skin care product (10%), it was showed that the product had antioxidant activity at 9.12 mg ascorbic acid/100ml, total phenolic acid at 41.86 mg gallic acid/100ml, ORAC at 678.04 µmol TE/100ml, total anthocyanin at 0.27 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside/100ml and anti-tyrosinase efficient (IC50) less than 1,000 mg/ml.


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Promkhan S, Wongbasg C, Hemathulin S. Preparation of Mao (Antidesma thwaitesianum Muell.Arg) Extract Niosomes for Skin Care Product. J Appl Res Sci Tech [Internet]. 2022 Jun. 24 [cited 2023 Dec. 1];21(1):112-21. Available from:
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