Sensory Characteristics of Soybean Breads and Marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) Breads

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Nattakit Paresithanarak
Nareeya Thanakornvises
Narisara Luengprapha
Kamonnet Boonwitian
Nutthaya Srisuvor


Bread is a popular food and convenient food that provides high energy from the carbohydrate. Consumers eat it as a substitute for rice in a meal or as a snack. Supplementing the nutritional values or phytochemicals in bread increases the nutritional benefits from the consumption of bread. The purposes of this research were to study the effects of supplementing soybean powder in breads and marigold petals in pound breads on the sensory characteristics. The soybean powder replaced low-protein wheat flour at the levels of 0 25 and 50 % (w/w) and marigold petals in the ratios of water: marigold petals as 1: 0, 1: 1, 1: 2 and 1: 3 (by weight) were evaluated using a preference test with a 5-point hedonic scale. The sensory evaluations of the breads supplemented with soybean powder showed that the appearance, color, odor, flavor, taste, texture, and overall liking of the 3 bread recipes were not significantly different (p > 0.05). The pound breads supplemented with marigold petals at the ratios of 1: 0, 1: 1 and 1: 3 had the highest odor (3.8, 3.7, and 4.5 scores, respectively) and texture characteristics (4.4, 4.3, and 3.9 scores, respectively). At the ratio 1: 3 was the highest for flavor (4.2 scores). The supplementation with soybean powder in breads and marigold petals in pound breads did not affect appearance, color, taste, and overall preference (p > 0.05). Therefore, soybean powder and marigold petals can be used in the functional foods to increase the nutritional value and phytochemicals in them. They can be used in other bakery products and commercial foods.


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Paresithanarak N, Thanakornvises N, Luengprapha N, Boonwitian K, Srisuvor N. Sensory Characteristics of Soybean Breads and Marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) Breads. J Appl Res Sci Tech [Internet]. 2021 Apr. 28 [cited 2023 Dec. 3];20(1):114-22. Available from:
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