Main Article Content
Bread is a popular food and convenient food that provides high energy from the carbohydrate. Consumers eat it as a substitute for rice in a meal or as a snack. Supplementing the nutritional values or phytochemicals in bread increases the nutritional benefits from the consumption of bread. The purposes of this research were to study the effects of supplementing soybean powder in breads and marigold petals in pound breads on the sensory characteristics. The soybean powder replaced low-protein wheat flour at the levels of 0 25 and 50 % (w/w) and marigold petals in the ratios of water: marigold petals as 1: 0, 1: 1, 1: 2 and 1: 3 (by weight) were evaluated using a preference test with a 5-point hedonic scale. The sensory evaluations of the breads supplemented with soybean powder showed that the appearance, color, odor, flavor, taste, texture, and overall liking of the 3 bread recipes were not significantly different (p > 0.05). The pound breads supplemented with marigold petals at the ratios of 1: 0, 1: 1 and 1: 3 had the highest odor (3.8, 3.7, and 4.5 scores, respectively) and texture characteristics (4.4, 4.3, and 3.9 scores, respectively). At the ratio 1: 3 was the highest for flavor (4.2 scores). The supplementation with soybean powder in breads and marigold petals in pound breads did not affect appearance, color, taste, and overall preference (p > 0.05). Therefore, soybean powder and marigold petals can be used in the functional foods to increase the nutritional value and phytochemicals in them. They can be used in other bakery products and commercial foods.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Luangsakul N, Nualkaekul S. Cooking bible: Bakery. 5th ed. Bangkok: Amarin Printing & Publishing Public; 2018. Thai.
Vos MB, Kaar JL, Welsh JA, Horn LVV, Feig DI, Anderson CAM, et al. Added sugars and cardiovascular disease risk in children: A scientific statement from the American heart association. Circ. 2017;135(19):e1017-34.
Picincu A. Does Sugar Turn into Fat? [Internet]. n.p: Livestrong; 2019 [updated 19 Nov 09; cited 20 Apr 02]. Availability from: https://www.livestrong.com/article/408673-does-sugar-turn-into-fat/
Manantapong K, Songpranam P, Kamdaen O. [Development from pollen of lotus for bread]. Pathum Thani: Rajamangala University of Technology Thanyaburi; 2011, 125353. Thai.
Meemuk W, Kanchana R, Oupathumpanont, O. [Development of bread with kidney bean product by apply of design of experiments]. J Eng RMUTT. 2012;10(2):13-21. Thai.
Voicetv. Handing out recipes of marigold cake, herbal dessert for nurturing eyes [Internet]. Bangkok: Voicetv; 2017 [updated 17 Jun 23; cited 20 Apr 12]. Availability from: https://www.voicetv.co.th/read/501253. Thai.
Sentangsedtee Online. Marigold cake is delicious too and it helps nourish the eyes [Internet]. Bangkok: Matichon; 2017 [updated 21 Mar 07; Cited 2020 Apr 12]. Availability from: https://www.sentangsedtee.com/exclusive/article_36118. Thai.
Adelakun OE, Duodu KG, Buys E, Olanipekun BF. Potential use of soybean flour (glycinemax) in food fortification. In: El-Shcmy HA, editor. Soybean-Bio-Active Compounds. Rijeka, Croatia: InTech; 2013. p. 513-20.
Fuentes E, Guzmán L, Carrasco G, Leiva E, Moore-Carrasco R, Palomo I. Food, nutrition and health. In: El-Shemy HA, editor. Soybean-Bio-Active Compounds. Rijeka, Croatia: InTech; 2013. p. 521-46.
Thai Community Product Standard. (TCPS. 688/2547). Soybean Powder [Internet]. Bangkok: Thai Industrial Standards Institute; 2004 [cited 20 Apr 02]. Availability from: http://tcps.tisi.go.th/pub/tcps688_47.pdf. Thai.
Anngle. How to make “Kinako”, many useful soybean powder for both health and beauty [Internet]. Bangkok: Tencent; 2019 [updated 19 Oct 20; cited 20 Apr 02]. Availability from: https://www.sanook.com/women/151953/. Thai.
Thiengburanathum W. Dictionary of Thai Herbs. 5th ed. Bangkok: Ruamsarn; 1999. Thai.
Ruangrungsi N, Mangalakup T. Thai Herbs. Vol 1. Bangkok: Than Printing; 2004. Thai.
Chainok K. Marigolds...yellow flowers are good for the eyes [Internet]. Bangkok: MedHerb Guru; 2018 [cited 2020 Apr 03]. Availability from: http://medherbguru.gpo.or.th/articles/d59_marigold.pdf. Thai.
Wang W, Xu H, Chen H, Tai K, Liu F, Gao Y. In vitro antioxidant, anti-diabetic and antillipemic potentials of quercetagetin extracted from marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) inflorescence residues. J Food Sci Tech. 2016;53(6):2614-24.
Ayub MA, Hussain AI, Hanif MA, Chatha SAS, Kamal GM, Shahid M, et al. Variation in phenolic profile, β-carotene and flavonoid contents, biological activities of two tagetes species from Pakistani flora. Chem Biodivers. 2017;14(6):e1600463-70.
Saani M, Lawrence R, Lawrence K. Evaluation of pigments from methanolic extract of Tagetes erecta and Beta vulgaris as antioxidant and antibacterial agent. Nat Prod Res. 2018;32(10):1208-11.
Boonvorapat V. Encyclopedia of Thai-Chinese Herbs are Frequently Used in Thailand. Bangkok: Association of Traditional Chinese Medicine in Thailand; 2011. Thai.
Wangyao P. Bakery Recipes, Palace People (Wangyao). Bangkok: Rajamangala Institution of Technology, Technical Krungthep Campus; n.d. Thai.
Charoenkulsak W. Accarabovon W. [Development of soy spread] [bachelor’s thesis]. Bangkok: Mahidol University; 2005. Thai.