Main Article Content
Every year, an empty fruit bunch (EFB) is extensively produced in Thailand, and this EFB has the potential to use it as the source of energy. A novel waste-to-energy technology of converting this agricultural waste into the value-added product has been studied. Microwave-assisted pyrolysis (MAP) is selected as the case study. However, to extend the study of represent model of the biodiesel production plant, the development of the mathematical equation of this plant was performed with the aid of Design-Expert V.12.0.8 (trial) software. The distillate to feed ratio of the distillation column, the temperature of a heat exchanger, and the pressure of a decanter drum is selected as the independent variables for determining the product yield and utility cost. The result showed that the characteristic equations which can be used as a representative model for the yield of biodiesel, the yield of gasoline, and utility cost were significant with a 95% confidence level. The R-squared value predicted by the model was found to be 0.95-1.00. The mathematical model can be used for the analysis of product yield and the operating cost. The target of optimization has been set for maximizing product yields and minimizing the utility cost of the plant. The result showed that at the optimum operating conditions of the set of constraints e.g. distillate-to-feed ratio, the temperature, the pressure were 0.9, 60 C, 21.83 bar, respectively. At this optimum point, the values of biodiesel yield, gasoline yield, and utility cost are 5,909.45 kg/hr., 4,169.92 kg/hr., and 514.23 USD/hr., respectively.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Salema AA, Ani FN. Microwave-assisted pyrolysis of oil palm shell biomass using an overhead stirrer. J ANAL APPL PYROL. 2012;96:162-72.
Yin C. Microwave-assisted pyrolysis of biomass for liquid biofuels production. Bioresource Technol. 2012;120:273-84.
Kerdsuwan S, Laohalidanond K. Renewable energy from palm oil empty fruit bunch. In: Nayeripour M, editor. Renewable energy-trends and applications. InTech; 2011. p. 123-50.
Zhang Y, Chen P, Liu S, Fan L, Zhou N, Min M, et al. Microwave-assisted pyrolysis of biomass for bio-oil production. In: Samer M, editor. Pyrolysis: InTech; 2017. p. 129-65.
Omar R, Idris A, Yunus R, Khalid K, Isma MA. Characterization of empty fruit bunch for microwave-assisted pyrolysis. Fuel. 2011;90(4):1536-44.
Bridgwater AV. Review of fast pyrolysis of biomass and product upgrading. Biomass Bioenerg. 2012;38:68-94.
Zhang Y, Chen P, Liu S, Peng P, Min M, Cheng Y, et al. Effects of feedstock characteristics on microwave-assisted pyrolysis–a review. Bioresource Technol. 2017;230:143-51.
Peters JF, Banks SW, Bridgwater AV, Dufour J. A kinetic reaction model for biomass pyrolysis processes in Aspen Plus. Appl Energ. 2017;188:595-603.
Iisa K, French RJ, Orton KA, Dutta A, Schaidle JA. Production of low-oxygen bio-oil via ex situ catalytic fast pyrolysis and hydrotreating. Fuel. 2017;207:413-22.
Lee J, Son Y, Lee KS, Won W. Economic analysis and environmental impact assessment of heat pump-assisted distillation in a gas fractionation unit. Energies. 2019;12(5):852-70.
Pattiya A, Titiloye JO, Bridgwater AV. Fast pyrolysis of agricultural residues from cassava plantation for bio-oil production. Carbon. 2009;51:51-9.
Sakhre V. Reactive Distillation: Modeling, Simulation, and Optimization. In: Steffen V, editor. Distillation-Modelling, Simulation and Optimization: IntechOpen; 2019.