Anti-oxidant activity, phenolic and flavonoid constituents of Crude extracts from Piper ribesioides and Zanthoxylum limonella traditional herbal medicine in Northern Thailand

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Suwadee Phowichit
Piyanee Ratanachamnong
Udomlak Matsathit
Weerasak Ussawawongaraya


The objective of current study was to evaluate an anti-oxidant activity with different solvent polarities (methanol, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane, and hexane) derived from stem of Piper ribesioides together with stalk and seed of Zanthoxylum limonella traditional herbal medicine in Northern Thailand.  Natural antioxidant in medicinal plants were defined for provide antioxidant activity by DPPH scavenging assay together with quantification of the phenolic and flavonoid constituents using Folin Ciocalteau and Aluminium chloride method, respectively.  The polar methanol extract showed greatest antioxidant effect, while ethyl acetate was the second order reaction both in P. ribesioides and Z. limonella.  The ability of methanol extract from stem of P. ribesioides exhibited strongest antioxidant DPPH radical scavenging with IC50 values as 0.2 mg/ml, which was correlated with maximum value of total phenolic acid (68.83 gif.latex?\pm 0.38   mg equivalent of gallic acid per gram, mgGAE/g) and flavonoid content (37.13 gif.latex?\pm 0.47 mg equivalent of quercetin per gram, mgQE/g).  Similarly, the highest anti-oxidant activity of Z. limonella stalk and seed extract on methanol extract showed IC50 values as 0.26 and 0.37 mg/ml, respectively.  Stalk showed higher phenolic content (53.67 gif.latex?\pm 0.45 mgGAE/g) than seed (24.15 gif.latex?\pm 0.48 mgGAE/g) as well as total flavonoid content of stalk (25.76 gif.latex?\pm 0.43 mgQE/g) and seed (10.25 gif.latex?\pm 0.63 mgQE/g).  A relationship between antioxidant activities and increasing levels of total phenolic compounds -or flavonoids was found to be active based on solvent polarities in the extraction of these medicinal plants.  Our findings revealed the preliminary scientific evidence for develop traditional herbal medicine into a valuable source for the future of human health care.


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Phowichit S, Ratanachamnong P, Matsathit U, Ussawawongaraya W. Anti-oxidant activity, phenolic and flavonoid constituents of Crude extracts from Piper ribesioides and Zanthoxylum limonella traditional herbal medicine in Northern Thailand. J Appl Res Sci Tech [Internet]. 2019 Jun. 13 [cited 2023 Nov. 29];18(1):25-39. Available from:
Research Articles
Author Biography

Suwadee Phowichit, King Mongkut’s University of Technology North Bangkok, THAILAND

Suwadee Phowichit, Ph.D.
Department of Industrial Physics and Medical Instrumentation
Faculty of Applied Science
1518 Pracharat 1 Rd., Wongsawang, Bangsue, Bangkok 10800, Thailand
Tel. 662-555-2000 ext. 4418
Mobile Phone. 6685-365-5280


2009-2016 Ph.D. (Molecular Biology)
Faculty of Medicine, Srinakharinwirot University, Bangkok, Thailand
2005-2009 B.S. (Biology, 1 st Hons)
Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand

Oct 2014- Apr 2015 Visiting Ph.D. scholar: Topic, Antiangiogenic Effects of a novel urea
derivative VH02: in vitro and in vivo studies; Host, Prof. Yasufumi Sato,
Department of Vascular Biology, Institute of Development, Aging, and
Cancer (IDAC), Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan

2009-2017 Ph.D. scholarship recipient of the Royal Golden Jubilee (RGJ)
Program, supported by Thailand Research Fund
2005-2009 B.S. scholarship recipient of the Science Achievement Scholarship
(SAST) of Thailand

RESEARCH INTEREST: Angiogenesis, antiangiogenesis , anti-cancer, endothelial function,
vascular biology research, anti-inflammatory, and plant extracts toxicology

MEMBERSHIP: The Pharmacological and Therapeutic Society of Thailand (2016)
PEER REVIEWER: The 10 th  Suwadee Phowichit, Ph.D.  Biomedical Engineering Conference (BMECON-2018)

PostgraduateDemonstrator, Regulary supervises practical and technical skills in laboratory,
Training in In cell analyzer, Flow cytometer, Multi-volumn spectrophotometer, Microarray, Slider
imager, Small DNA extraction, LabChip GX & Microplate reader, V3 Western work flow, Leica
AF 6500 fluorescence microscopy, Sequencing analysis and Confocal microscopy


  1. Phowichit S, Buatippawan S, Bullangpoti V. Insecticidal activity of Jatropha gho ssypifolia L.

   (Euphorbiaceae) and Cleome viscosa L. (Capparidacae) against  Spodoptera litura (Lepi   

   doptera: Noctuidae). Toxicity and carboxylesterase and   glutathion-S-tranferase activities  

   studies. Comm. Appl. Biol. Sci. 2008; 73(3): 611-20.

  1. Sanphanya K, Wattanapitayakul SK, Phowichit S, Fokin VV, Vajragupta O. Novel

    VEGFR–2 kinase inhibitors identified by the back-to-front approach. Bioorg Med Chem Lett.    

    2013 May 15; 23(10): 2962-7.

  1. Phowichit S, Kobayashi M, Fujinoya Y, Sato Y, Sanphanya K, Vajragupta O,    

    Chularojmontri L, and Wattanapitayakul SK. Antiangiogenic Effects of a novel urea   

    derivative VH02: in vitro and in vivo studies. Molecules. 2016 Sep 21;21(9): 1-17.
4. Phowichit S, Weerasak Ussawawongaraya, Theerawut Phusantisampan, Nuntana Spilles,
and Waravit Rattanawong Influence of Temperature on Peracetic Acis Efficiency in Dialyzer
Reuse. Oral presented at SRU international conference on Suratthani Rajabhat University,
Surat Thani December 14-15, 2017, Thailand.
5. Thippawan Kongsin, Phowichit S, Weerasak Ussawawongaraya, and Chissanuthat
Bunluechokchai Wireless Parental Fluid Monitor for Hemodialysis . Oral
presented at SRU international conference on Suratthani Rajabhat University, Surat Thani
December 14-15, 2017, Thailand.


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