• Haruethai Buakhiao Miss


Hmong culture, Ethnicity, Human trafficking, Gender-based violence


Migration in Laos has been influenced by economic factor, government policies and social factor including gender-based violence that has been defined as a factor that leads women to unsafe migration and can possibly become victims of human trafficking. This paper would like to make an in-depth analysis on this issue in order to comprehend the details of gender-based violence. Relating to human trafficking, the ethnographic research was conducted through in-depth life history interview with one key informant. Focus-group interview and observation method were made to collect data in the field, and later triangular method has been applied in order to verify the data. The research study was conducted in Vientiane, Laos PDR. Through the theory of structuration, the analysis was made to analyze the experiences of the key informant. It is found that patriarchal culture, that shapes women and positions the status of women as secondary importance, had rather create limitations than opportunities to women. Moreover, it reproduces the cultural violence and structural violence that have gender-based violence as the main factor and can lead women to risks, or to fall prey to human trafficking, or to be at risks of unsafe migration.




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How to Cite

Buakhiao, H. (2020). ETHNIC FEMALE HUMAN-TRAFFICKING: THE CASE OF HMONG WOMAN IN LAOS. Life Sciences and Environment Journal, 21(1), 224–244. Retrieved from



Research Articles