Life Sciences and Environment Journal <p>Life Sciences and Environment Journal is a peer-reviewed journal of Pibulsongkram Rajabhat University. The published articles cover 1. Agricultural and ฺBiological sciences 2. Environmental Sciences 3. Health Sciences and 4. Multidisciplinary sciences. The journal is indexed in TCI&nbsp; and ACI.</p> <p>Two issues are published a year (January-June and July-December).</p> <p>Online ISSN 2730-3527</p> <p>Print ISSN 2773-9201</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Research and Development Institute, Pibulsongkram Rajabhat University en-US Life Sciences and Environment Journal 2773-9201 <p>Each article is copyrighted © by its author(s) and is published under license from the author(s).</p> Editorial Note <p>วารสาร Life Sciences and Environment Journal ซึ่งเป็นวารสารวิชาการที่อยู่ในฐานข้อมูลการตีพิมพ์การอ้างอิงของวารสารระดับประเทศในกลุ่มอาเซียน (ASEAN Citation Index: ACI) และฐานข้อมูลระดับชาติ จากศูนย์ดัชนีการอ้างอิงวารสารไทย (Thai Journal Citation Index: TCI) กลุ่ม 1</p> <p>วารสาร Life Sciences and Environment Journal ปีที่ 24 ฉบับที่ 2 (ประจำเดือนกรกฎาคม - ธันวาคม 2566) ได้พิจารณาคัดเลือกผลงานที่มีคุณภาพ ครอบคลุมสาขาด้านวิทยาศาสตร์การเกษตรและวิทยาศาสตร์ชีวภาพ ด้านวิทยาศาสตร์สิ่งแวดล้อม ด้านวิทยาศาสตร์สุขภาพ และด้านสหวิทยาการทางด้านวิทยาศาสตร์ จำนวนทั้งสิ้น 20 บทความ ซึ่งผ่านการประเมินโดยผู้ทรงคุณวุฒิพิจารณาคุณภาพบทความ (Peer Review) ซึ่งเป็นผู้ทรงคุณวุฒิภายนอกจากหลากหลายสถาบัน จำนวน 3 ท่าน จึงทำให้แต่ละบทความล้วนมีคุณค่าทางวิชาการ และสามารถนำไปใช้เป็นเอกสารอ้างอิงเพื่อการผลิตผลงานทางวิชาการได้</p> <p>กองบรรณาธิการและคณะกรรมการจัดทำวารสารฯ มหาวิทยาลัยราชภัฏพิบูลสงคราม ขอขอบคุณผู้ทรงคุณวุฒิพิจารณาคุณภาพบทความ ตลอดจนผู้อ่านและผู้สนใจทุกท่านที่ติดตามผลงานที่ตีพิมพ์ในวารสาร นำผลงานไปอ้างอิงหรือส่งต้นฉบับเพื่อตีพิมพ์ในวารสารนี้ กองบรรณาธิการหวังเป็นอย่างยิ่งว่าจะได้รับเกียรติและความอนุเคราะห์จากท่านในโอกาสต่อไป</p> Thunwadee Srithawirat Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-06 2023-12-06 24 2 OPTIMIZED PARAMETERS OF DRIED RED CHILI ON THE ROTARY DRYER PROCESS <p>This study evaluated the performance of hot air drying in the fresh Jinda red chili and the design of this semi-automatic fluidized bed rotary dryer machine. The hot air system can bake more than 20 kilograms of chili, and the pressure of hot air, up to 50 millibars, can adjust the speed of the baking drum to make the chili more exposed to hot air. This machine has a maximum temperature of 140 degrees and 5 hours of residence time, which is safe. The principle of the machine is hot air removal to remove moisture in the product and air evaporates. The remaining heat is sent returned to the reusable pipeline to save energy from the start to the last loop, and the final moisture content of the product can be evaluated. The drying parameters studied were hot air velocities between 1-3 mater per second operating temperatures 70–90 degree Celsius and moisture drum drain lead time between 10-30 minutes. The 3k factorial experiment technique was employed to determine optimum variables. The multiple-response optimization revealed that the moisture of products is not fracture of dried chili, was 14.05 % wet basis, and 94.86% respectively not conducive to the growth of fungal pathogens that cause aflatoxins to cause cancer in the body, and a good product for cooking.</p> Chaitamlong Pongpattanasiri Anuwit Sonsiri Voravee Punyakum Noppadol Amdee Channarong Tantiwattanodom Copyright (c) 2023 Life Sciences and Environment Journal 2023-09-01 2023-09-01 24 2 273 284 10.14456/lsej.2023.21 PERFORMANCE OF THE SOLAR DRYER AND MOISTURE CONTENT PREDICTION OF SWEET TAMARIND USING AN ANN <p>This research presents the experimental performance of solar dryers and artificial neural network modeling of solar dryers for drying sweet tamarinds. Fifteen batches of sweet tamarinds were drying; for each batch, we used 2.0 kilograms of sweet tamarinds. The parameters used in the artificial neural network model are solar radiation, air temperature, relative humidity and airflow rate. The numerical solution was programmed in C<sup>++</sup>. The results showed that the moisture content, calculated from the model corresponds to the measured values <em>RMSE=</em>0.5013 and <em>R<sup>2</sup></em>=0.9818.</p> Jagrapan Piwsaoad Chayapat Phusumpao Copyright (c) 2023 Life Sciences and Environment Journal 2023-09-01 2023-09-01 24 2 285 296 10.14456/lsej.2023.22 ETHOSOMES PREPARATION OF HOM THONG BANANA PEEL EXTRACT FOR DEVELOPMENT OF COSMETICS <p>The purpose of this research was to analyze the total phenolic, flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity of Hom Thong and Kluay Khai banana peel extracts and encapsulated with ethosomes particles for application in cosmeceuticals. Hom Thong and Kluai Khai peel banana extracts were extracted by soxhlet extraction using 70% ethanol that showed a decrease in total phenolic flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity according to unripe, semi-ripe and ripe stages. Unripe Hom Thong banana peel extract contained the highest amount of total phenolic content (243.00±0.39 mg GA/g), flavonoids (920.30±0.00 mg QE/100g), and antioxidant activity (308.82±2.05 mg TE/g) followed by unripe Kluai Khai banana peel extract (58.60±9.07 mg GA/g, 545.31±0.00 mg QE/100g, 25.98±1.02 mg TE/g). Ripe Kluai Khai banana peel extract exhibited the least amount of phenolic and flavonoids contents. The Hom Thong unripe banana peel extract (0.25% w/w) was prepared ethosomes using a high speed mixer homogenizer. The particle size of ethosomes (Z-Average) was 179.4±3.60 nm on the surface charge (Zeta-potential) -43.5±0.72 mV with a polydispersity index (PDI) 0.256±0.02. The entrapment efficiency of ethosomes loading Hom Thong unripe banana peel extract was 68.70±0.95.</p> Watcharaporn Thaharn Napaporn Wannaprom Yaowalak Khanhuathon Narongrit Tipcompor Copyright (c) 2023 Life Sciences and Environment Journal 2023-09-05 2023-09-05 24 2 297 308 10.14456/lsej.2023.23 EVALUATION OF HEAVY METAL CONTAMINATION IN WATER FOR PADDY FIELDS USAGE OF PHITSANULOK PROVINCE <p>The purpose of this research was to assess the heavy metal contaminations in water used for paddy cultivation in Phitsanulok Province. The total of 60 water samples were randomly collected from groundwater pumped to use in the paddy fields of 30 farmers and irrigation water pumped to use in the paddy fields of 30 farmers. Contaminations of lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, manganese and iron in water samples were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometer. The results revealed that most of irrigation water used for paddy cultivation contaminated more heavy metal contents than the groundwater. The irrigation water was contaminated with the highest iron content, followed by manganese, zinc, lead, cadmium and copper with average values of 8.606±2.883, 0.662±0.516, 0.351±0.399, 0.097±0.085, 0.050±0.010 and 0.020±0.018 mg/L, respectively, which is considered to be within the Pollution Control Department's standard for agricultural use, but the average cadmium content exceeded the irrigation water standard for agriculture of Office of the Royal Development Projects Board (RDPB) and FAO. The groundwater pumped for paddy cultivation also had the highest iron contamination, followed by manganese, lead, zinc, copper and cadmium, with average values of 2.820±3.468, 0.816±0.932, 0.248±0.190, 0.142±0.239, 0.009±0.024 and 0.001±0.002 mg/L, respectively, which was not higher than the standard of RDPB and the groundwater standards for consumption of the Department of Groundwater Resources and NCAC, except for lead contamination.</p> Piyada Wachirawongsakorn Tongsai Jamnongkan Copyright (c) 2023 Life Sciences and Environment Journal 2023-09-05 2023-09-05 24 2 309 326 10.14456/lsej.2023.24 EXTRACTION OF CMC FROM CORNCOB AND ITS APPLICATION AS COATING AGENT ON MANGO FRUIT <p>This study aimed to synthesize carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) from corncobs for use as coating agent on mango. Cellulose is converted by etherification under suitable conditions and then finally purified. Then, the extracted CMC was used as a film for coating the mango fruit. Under the optimized reaction conditions, the extracted CMC had a degree of substitution (DS) of 0.12. The results showed that the FTIR spectra of the obtained CMCs exhibited strong absorption bands in the range of 1600-1700 cm-1, which was related to the carbonyl group (C=O) vibration stretching absorption. The absorption in the 1400–1450 cm-1 region is due to symmetrical deformations of CH2 groups. The strong absorption bands in the range of 1200–1000 cm-1 are due to the stretching vibration of the ether (-O-). The FT-IR results confirmed CMC modification. Thermal analysis found that CMC had a melting temperature in the range of 163.2-181.4 oC. In degradation, CMC can be completely decomposed within 72 hrs using the soil embedding method. The results of the water vapor permeability (WVP) test showed that CMC and glycerol affected the film properties. Increasing CMC content, water vapor permeability (WVP) decreased. In contrast, with increasing glycerol, increased WVP. We conclude that fruits coated with the obtained CMC from corncob could maintain the quality of Nam Dok Mai Mango (Mangifera Indica Linn.).</p> Sujitra Ruengdechawiwat Pornwipa Sanawong Copyright (c) 2023 Life Sciences and Environment Journal 2023-09-05 2023-09-05 24 2 327 337 10.14456/lsej.2023.25 ACCIDENT DETECTION AND NOTIFICATION SYSTEM USING DEEP LEARNING TECHNIQUE <p>This study aimed to develop an accident detection and notification system for road accidents related to vulnerable groups on the road, such as motorcyclists, who account for 80% of all road fatalities in Thailand. YOLOv5 is used to develop a system where objects in the image can be detected, whether a person or a motorcycle involved in an accident. The comparison of accident detection results obtained with different YOLOv5 models led to the selection of the most suitable model. Then, the notification system was developed in Python language along with LINE Notify API (Line Notify Application Programming Interface) for sending images and notifications to groups of people through the Line application when the system detects a road accident. The results show that YOLOv5x has the best performance in accident detection with 93.21% compared to the results of other models. Moreover, the developed system was 100 percent successful in sending images along with a short message indicating the number of motorcycles and the number of people involved in the accident. This intelligent accident detection and notification system can detect accidents immediately by alerting rescue workers, police officers or other parties. The information about road accidents, including images or messages, can help evaluate the situation and promptly prepare the rescue team and the necessary equipment, leading to immediate assistance to accident victims.</p> Pornpanom Nanthasen Panomkhawn Riyamongkol Copyright (c) 2023 Life Sciences and Environment Journal 2023-10-09 2023-10-09 24 2 338 351 10.14456/lsej.2023.26 PRELIMINARY STUDY OF SEX IDENTIFICATION FROM CLAVICLES IN A THAI POPULATION <p>Human bone identification is an important forensic anthropological technique and has potential in the solution of crimes. However, the accuracy of this technique is different in success rate because of the individual characteristics of each bones and external factors. This study aimed to identify sex of 200 Thai clavicles (100 males and 100 females) collected from Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medical Science, Naresuan University and Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Khonkaen University by measurements in six parameters of clavicle including 1. Maximum Length of Clavicle (MaxL) 2. Width of acromion end Anterior-Posterior at Acromion end (APA) 3. Anterior-Posterior at Sternal end (APS) 4. Superior-Inferior at Acromion end (SIA) 5. Superior-Inferior at Sternal end (SIS) 6. Circumference at Mid-shaft (CirMid). Discriminant function analysis and descriptive statistics were used for sex estimation. The results showed that an average of six parameters in males were significantly greater than in females (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.05). Right circumference at mid- shaft (RCirMid) was the most accurate parameter in the estimation of sex. The classification rate was 80.0%. Moreover, researchers found that all parameters have significantly greater value in males than females and were consistent with previous studies in other populations.</p> Kaemisa Srisen Suthat Duangchit Athittiya Unyong Ruetairat Promthong Chanasorn Poodendaen Copyright (c) 2023 Life Sciences and Environment Journal 2023-10-09 2023-10-09 24 2 352 361 10.14456/lsej.2023.27 MANAGEMENT MODEL FOR EMPLOYING FOREIGN WORKERS OF EXECUTIVES IN THE MANUFACTURING SECTOR IN THE WESTERN REGION OF THAILAND <p>This research aimed to analyze the first order and second order confirmatory factors of management model for employing foreign workers. The study examined six factors: labor shortage, labor demand, labor wages, characteristics of labor law &amp; policy and language. To analyze the data, confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling analysis were carried out using a quantitative approach which collected data from 400 managers in the manufacturing sectors in the western region of Thailand. The research tool was questionnaires with a reliability of 0.98. The statistics used in data analysis include percentage, mean, and standard deviation. The first order confirmatory factor analysis showed that the labor shortage had three main factors: diligence, willingness to work, and following orders. The labor demand had two factors: responsibilities and patience. The labor wages include cost effectiveness and cost reduction. The nature of work consists of two factors: the selection of labor suitable for the work and the risks of laws and government policies. There is only one component in the government agencies that are there to help. However, the language aspect does not affect the hiring of foreign workers. The second order confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the first factor affecting the decision to hire foreign workers is job characteristics with a regression weight of 98. The flowered factors are labor wage with a regression weight of .41, and labor demand with a regression weight of .38 at statistical significance at the .05 level. Other factors do not affect hiring foreign workers.</p> Kumnung Vongprechakorn Tongtang Tonglim Noppadol Amdee Copyright (c) 2023 Life Sciences and Environment Journal 2023-10-10 2023-10-10 24 2 362 379 10.14456/lsej.2023.28 DEVELOPMENT OF A PROTOTYPE OF THE TECHNOLOGY THAT HELPS TO IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF EMERGENCY MEDICAL SERVICES IN REMOTE RURAL AREAS THROUGH HIGH-SPEED DIGITAL NETWORKS <p>This project develops a prototype of digital technologies that help to improve the quality of emergency medical services in remote rural areas through high-speed digital networks. The main purpose is to develop a telemedicine system and mobile application for efficient public health services anywhere and anytime for users including, doctors, nurses, public health officers, and community health volunteers. The researchers have designed and developed seven systems; the Data center system, Medical consultation system via smartphone, Medical and public health service systems via smartphones for the public sector users, Health promotion and disease prevention working systems on smartphones for the Primary Care Cluster (PCC) Team, Health promotion working and health information monitoring systems on smartphones for Health Volunteer, Medical counseling systems for ICU patients with Hologram technologies, and Medical counseling systems via tablet for ultrasound diagnostics. Furthermore, the systems are integrated with six values based program (VBP) innovations of Regional Heath Office 2. These systems are developed and adjusted to be installed and operated in two central hospitals, eight community hospitals, 147 participating hospitals, and provincial hospitals. The researchers have developed and improved the performance of the systems to meet the actual needs of doctors and the public health system. These medical systems can be widely extended to use, particularly from Phitsanulok to other provinces in the area of Regional Health Office 2.</p> Saran Suwannapoth Paisarn Muneesawang Sirikasem Sirilak Suchart Yammen Kanida Narattharaksa Ratapum Champunot Copyright (c) 2023 Life Sciences and Environment Journal 2023-10-12 2023-10-12 24 2 380 393 10.14456/lsej.2023.29 STUDY FOR THE QUANTITY OF OMEGA–9 IN COLD EXTRACTED OIL FROM RED AND GREEN SHELLED COCONUT <p>The objectives of an experimental study for omega–9 content in cold pressed oil from red and green shelled coconuts were 1) to study for omega–9 content with the fermentation duration to obtain the highest oil content and 2) to study the physio-chemical properties of coconut oil and omega–9 content. Oil extraction yield produced from general coconuts with green shells took two days with a meat and water weight ratio of 1:1 for squeezing into coconut milk. Red shelled coconuts took four days with the weight of meat and water at 1:2 to squeeze into coconut milk. The acidity of natural cold pressed oil from green and red shelled coconuts was 4.75 and 0.90 mg KOH/g, respectively. The viscosities of natural cold pressed oil from green shelled coconut at 40 and 100 <sup>o</sup>C were 75.22 and 61.08 centistroke, respectively. Natural cold pressed oil from red shelled coconut at 40 and 100<sup>o</sup>C were 45.48 and 17.71 centistroke, respectively. The boiling point of natural cold pressed oil from green shelled coconut was 153<sup>o</sup>C while for the natural cold pressed oil from red shelled coconut was 147<sup>o</sup>C. The calorific values of natural cold pressed oil from green and red shelled coconuts were 7,580.90 and 718.57 calories/g, respectively. The composition of natural cold pressed oil by GC–MS was found that oil from red shelled coconut contained omega–9, approximately 70% higher than oil from green shelled coconut. Therefore, oil from red shelled coconut has good dietary benefits in terms of higher omega–9 content, with lower acidity, viscosity and calories. Compared to the green shell, which is suitable for general purposes and utilities.</p> Thanit Metheenukul Pornphimon Metheenukul Anucha Rikakorn Yodphatarachai Kanitpunyacharoen Kanchana Plianumrung Copyright (c) 2023 Life Sciences and Environment Journal 2023-10-12 2023-10-12 24 2 394 411 10.14456/lsej.2023.30 A STUDY OF CARBON EMISSIONS IN TRAVELING: A CASE STUDY OF PHITSANULOK MUNICIPALITY <p>Pollution caused by transport poses a high percentage of health threats in urban areas which causes serious diseases and leads to death. The purpose of this study was to study the fuel consumption in the transport sector, vehicle selection behavior, and important factors affecting travel in Phitsanulok city municipality. The study consisted of 400 samples by using questionnaires to analyze the statistical results. From the study, it was found that each type of fuel consisted of Benzene, Gasohol 91, Gasohol 95, Gasohol E20 and Gasohol E85 used at 166,155,256.02 liters/year, and diesel fuel consisted of Diesel B7, Diesel B10 and Diesel B20 were used at 3,941,085.20 liters/year. From fuel consumption, it was found that the CO<sub>2</sub> emissions were 326,562.09 tCO<sub>2</sub>/year or, representing 0.04% of the whole country. The factors influencing the decision to choose the travel mode of private car users include 1) safety 2) travel time 3) cost 4) accessibility 5) waiting time 6) trips 7) service and 8) routes, respectively, which are different from public traveler consist of 1) cost 2) safety 3) travel time 4) waiting time 5) service 6) accessibility 7) trips and 8) routes, respectively. All stakeholders must jointly campaign to change travel behavior by developing and promoting public transportation in conjunction with using electric vehicles. For better quality and health of citizens in the city, leading to a sustainable low-carbon society.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> Suchinthorn Songsittidet Donyarit Settasuwacha Copyright (c) 2023 Life Sciences and Environment Journal 2023-11-01 2023-11-01 24 2 412 429 10.14456/lsej.2023.31 INNOVATIVE DEVELOPMENT WITH E-HERITAGE DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY 3D PATTERN TO ENHANCE HISTORICAL TOURISM OF CHAN PALACE FOR PHITSANULOK PROVINCE FOR TOURISTS <p>This research aims to develop a digital system that uses Augmented Reality (AR) and Hololens technology to provide historical information to tourists. The system utilizes 3D models of Chan Palace in Phitsanulok Province, which are created using 3DS Max and downsized using Blender. These models are then imported into Unity Build Project to be displayed in 3D via HoloLens. The results of this study demonstrate the innovative use of AR and 3D models to create a virtually enhanced heritage experience. This technology provides a more efficient and immersive way to present historical data in museums, offering 360-degree views, comprehensive information, and a realistic representation of the historical sites.</p> Piyawadee Noinumsai Paisarn Muneesawang Copyright (c) 2023 Life Sciences and Environment Journal 2023-11-01 2023-11-01 24 2 430 442 10.14456/lsej.2023.32 ENVIRONMENTAL-FRIENDLY ION EXCHANGE RESIN FROM WATER HYACINTH <p>The objective of this research was to prepare ion exchange resin using environmentally friendly processes and materials. Ion exchange resin was synthesized by the non-strong acid catalytic esterification of cellulose in water hyacinth and citric acid at optimal operating conditions. The highest total ion exchange capacity, in terms of free carboxylic content, was obtained when the reaction was performed at 60<sup>o</sup>C for 1 hour, then increased to 140<sup>o</sup>C for 1.5 hours after pre-treatment of water hyacinth with 0.4 mol/l of sodium hydroxide. The average carboxylic content of synthetic resin was 4.49 ± 0.11 meq/g. The morphology and functional groups of synthetic resin were characterized by SEM and FTIR, respectively. Adsorption study of the chromium (III) ion in aqueous solution by batch and column methods showed that the synthetic resin had good adsorption efficiency. The sorption capacities were 21.96–23.02 mg/g. In a three-cycle regeneration test with 0.25mol/l nitric acid, adsorption efficiencies by batch and column methods decreased progressively by less than 45% in the second cycle. Therefore, it is not suitable for reuse more than two times. However, the synthetic resin offered stable adsorption efficiency throughout the storage period of 18 months. The ion exchange resin prepared in this research is biodegradable and low-toxic, so it is friendly to animals, humans, and the environment. In addition, it has a low cost, reusability, and long storage time, so it has a high probability of application in many fields, such as environment (metal adsorbent in waste water), water hardness treatment and chemical analysis (preconcentration and separation).</p> Pannipa Pawanna Copyright (c) 2023 Life Sciences and Environment Journal 2023-11-10 2023-11-10 24 2 443 455 10.14456/lsej.2023.33 MOISTURE DIFFUSIVITY AND FINITE ELEMENT SIMULATION OF DRYING OF BANANA CV. KLUAI LEB MU NANG <p>A two-dimensional finite element model was developed to simulate moisture diffusion in Kluai Leb Mu Nang (Banana) during the drying process. The diffusivity and shrinkage of the banana used in this simulation were determined experimentally. The moisture diffusivity of the banana was determined by minimizing the sum of squares of the residuals between experimentally determined and numerically predicted data. The diffusivity values for bananas fall within the range of 4.15x10<sup>-6 </sup>to 6.22x10<sup>-6</sup> m<sup>2</sup>s<sup>-1</sup>. Additionally, the shrinkage of the banana during drying was determined experimentally, and an equation based on physical concepts was fitted to the experimental data. A computer program in Compaq Visual FORTRAN version 6.6 was developed to simulate the finite element model, and it successfully predicted moisture diffusion during drying. The moisture content profiles of the banana were also predicted, providing accurate insights into the movement of moisture inside the banana during the drying process. The finite element model performed well in predicting moisture contents, with an RMSD of 0.925. This model can serve as a valuable tool to understand the dynamics of moisture movement without requiring extensive measurements. Furthermore, it can be used to obtain design data for dryers.</p> Chayapat Phusampao Copyright (c) 2023 Life Sciences and Environment Journal 2023-11-10 2023-11-10 24 2 456 468 10.14456/lsej.2023.34 ANIMAL FEED MIXER WITH ROTATING DRUM USING BIOGAS ENERGY <p>This research aimed to design, construct, and test the animal feed mixer with a rotary rotating drum using biogas energy before analyzing the financial value. The research method was to study the problem of animal feed production process, and to design the structure consisting of a 100 kg mixing tank, a ribbon stirring, and 2 sets of 0.5 HP motors to drive the stirring and the rotating drum using biogas from pig feces fuel with a power engine of a 4kW generator, adjusting the carburetor of an internal combustion engine. The results showed that with the coefficient of variation rotation drum rate of 4 rpm and stirring 15 rpm time 150 seconds, the coefficient of variation was 29%. Based on the results of the engine performance with an electrical load of 100-1,000 W, it was found that gasoline fuels were more efficient than biogas. When tested with a 746 W machine engine speed of 2,885 rpm, 4.64 HP torque, 11.33 Nm, the fuel consumption rated of 0.036 kg/min, the specific fuel consumption was 0.43 kg/kW-h, and the electrical performance was 14.59%, when biogas fuel supply rated at 100%, it got the voltage 222 V and the current 3.96 A. The engine exhaust emission test found that the value did not exceed the air quality standards. The value for money comparison of the electrical cost, material costs, machine cost and feed value payback period were 1.12 years. The research results will increase the efficiency of animal feed production, reduce electricity consumption, and reduce labor costs.</p> Teerapod Naebnean Copyright (c) 2023 Life Sciences and Environment Journal 2023-12-04 2023-12-04 24 2 469 481 10.14456/lsej.2023.35 IMPROVEMENT OF USED ENGINE OIL PROPERTIES BY FAST PYROLYSIS IN FREE-FALL REACTOR <p>This experiment aims to improve the properties of used engine oil that has been in operation for 12,000 kilometers. The oil is subjected to a fast pyrolysis process in a drop tube furnace at temperatures of 400, 450, 500, 550, and 600 degrees Celsius, with oil feed rates of 50 and 100 milliliters per hour. The objective is to investigate the properties of the oil after undergoing rapid pyrolysis treatment, including heat value, density, viscosity, acidity, flash point, and ignition point, according to ASTM standards. The experimental results are compared with diesel and biodiesel fuels to provide guidance for decision-making in the production of biofuels for single-cylinder small engines used by farmers.</p> Wacharakron Jaitong Montree Wongsiriwittaya Copyright (c) 2023 Life Sciences and Environment Journal 2023-12-04 2023-12-04 24 2 482 493 10.14456/lsej.2023.36 DESIGN OF RAISED BED USING DSIGN THINKING PROCESS: A CASE STUDY SIGN THE COMMUNITY ENTERPRISE OF RAISED BED GARDENING, BAN HAN SUBDISTRICT, BANG KLAM DISTRICT, SONGKHLA PROVINE <p>The objectives of this study were (1) to investigate the physical environment, way of life, and social characteristics which are the identity of Ban Han Subdistrict; (2) to study, explore, and collect information on raised bed products and the identity of Ban Han Community Enterprise; and (3) to design the raised bed products representing the identity of the Ban Han Community Enterprise. In this study, the data were collected through interviews with 15 raised bed producers, which were selected using purposive sampling method. The structured interview was used in the data collection. The results showed that (1) the unique identity of Ban Han Subdistrict is the nature of environmental ecological capital as this subdistrict is located on a flat area along the river where U-Tapao Canal and Ban Han Canal flow through and it is an agricultural society in which most of the people in the community are engaged in rice farming, rubber plantations, orchards, vegetable gardens and animal husbandry; (2) the product demand analysis using design thinking principles to create added value for products enabled the expansion of distribution channels and generated income for the community; (3) in this study, detachable raised beds were successfully designed and produced for ease of storage and transportation which would increase and expand distribution channels; and (4) the brand logo was designed to represent the identity of the community, in which the word “Ban Han”, the name of the community was used in the logo design.</p> Saroch Meepuakmak Nattaneeporn Noisangiam Mongkol Chanintornsongkhla Boonrad Boonradsamee Copyright (c) 2023 Life Sciences and Environment Journal 2023-12-06 2023-12-06 24 2 494 505 10.14456/lsej.2023.37 ECONOMIC VALUE OF FOOD PLANTS AND MUSHROOMS OF NON CHAD COMMUNITY FOREST, LUK DAN SUB-DISTRICT, NAM NAO DISTRICT IN PHETCHABUN <p>This research aimed to assess economic value of food plants and mushrooms of Non Chad community forest, Luk Dan sub-district, Nam Nao district in Phetchabun. To reflect the direct-used value from food plants and mushrooms, they are used for consumption and sold as supplementary income within the household. Collecting data on utilization and economic valuation of plants and mushrooms by interviews with community forest committees, a user group totaling 25 households and secondary data together with the method of plotting to explore the diversity of plants. Data was analyzed using the Market Value method, which analyzes the buying and selling of produce in the market. Using market prices as a tool. The results revealed that 19 species of food plants and mushrooms in the community were for consumption and distribution divided into 5 types of high-level plants, one type of middle-level plant, five types of low-level plants, and eight types of mushrooms. The total economic value was 4,319,700 Baht per year or 32,725 Baht per household per year.</p> Thanawan Pinawet Yotrapee Tongcharoen Copyright (c) 2023 Life Sciences and Environment Journal 2023-12-06 2023-12-06 24 2 506 519 10.14456/lsej.2023.38 THE RELATIONSHIP MODELS BETWEEN THE EXTREME VALUES OF RAINFALL AND TEMPERATURE WITH THE YIELD OF SAFE RICE IN PHITSANULOK PROVINCE <p><strong> </strong>The ability to predict the future crop yield facilitates the responsible authorities to make the most appropriate decisions in order to ensure food security in the present and the future. As a result, studying the relationship between climate extremes and agricultural productivity is essential. Therefore, this research was to study the relationship between the extreme values of rainfall and temperature and the yield of safe rice in Phitsanulok province using three machine learning methods. Three machine learning methods consisted of multiple linear regression, random forest and support vector machine. The results showed that the extreme values of rainfall correlate with safe rice yields in Phitsanulok province. The extreme values of rainfall could explain 86% of the variation in the yield of safe rice in Phitsanulok province. The random forest method was an effective and reliable method for this modeling. In addition, it was found that the extreme values of average temperature were related to the yield of safe rice in Phitsanulok province. The extreme values of average temperature could explain the variation in safety rice yield in Phitsanulok province by 98%. The support vector machine method was effective and reliable for modeling the yield of safe rice in Phitsanulok province.</p> Saranya Thongsook Sophana Somran Natthinee Deetae Copyright (c) 2023 Life Sciences and Environment Journal 2023-12-06 2023-12-06 24 2 520 534 10.14456/lsej.2023.39 VALUE STREAM MAPPING ANALYSIS AND TRANSPORTATION IMPROVEMENT FOR TOBACCO SUPPLY CHAIN: A CASE STUDY OF TOBACCO FARMERS GROUP AT SI SAMRONG DISTRICT, SUKHOTHAI PROVINCE <p>This research aimed to analyze the supply chain from tobacco cultivation to production in the tobacco industry in the Thap Phueng Subdistrict, Si Samrong District, Sukhothai Province. The researchers collected data collection using the interview and inquiry methods from tobacco farmers in the upstream, midstream, and downstream tobacco cultivation processes, which took a total of 155 days to complete. The analysis was divided into two parts. In the first part, the researcher conducted a value stream mapping (VSM) study of the tobacco cultivation process. Two activities did not add value to the cultivation process of 17 activities. In the second part, integer linear programming was adopted to select the appropriate type of vehicle through the Excel solver program. From the data analyzed on the type of tractor and the distance of the location from the house to the farm, it was found that the position of the 1<sup>st</sup> – 4<sup>th </sup>rai selected the type of tractor for the farmer. In the 5th–10th position, the farmer can choose the type of E-tan truck that can reduce the transportation cost of tobacco cultivation to 11,190 baht per year. After comparing the data using the linear programming technique, the cost can be reduced by 14.74%.</p> Nattaporn Tungcharoenchai Krittima Intagoon Copyright (c) 2023 Life Sciences and Environment Journal 2023-12-06 2023-12-06 24 2 535 552 10.14456/lsej.2023.40