• Pornpat Sam-ang คณะวิทยาศาสตร์ มหาวิทยาลัยราชภัฏพิบูลสงคราม
  • Anuchit Phanumartwiwath
  • Rampai Kodsueb
Keywords: Paederia pilifera, Gall extract, Antioxidant activity, Antibacterial activity


Maile pilain (Paederia pilifera Hook.f.) is a climbing softwood, green stem, single leaves belonging to the family Rubiaceae. It has many medicinal properties to help food digestive system, to treat fever and relief of flatulence. Some samples of P. pilifera appeared as knots are similar to tumors caused by the growth of the external tissues, particularly the young branches which is called a gall. This research was to study bioactivities of gall extracts from P. pilifera, which is new knowledge and has not been reported before, by Soxhlet extraction using hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and ethanol as solvents, respectively on antioxidant activities by DPPH and FRAP assays and determination of total phenolic contents (TPCs) by Folin-Ciocalteu method. Then, the antibacterial activity against the growth of two pathogenic bacteria, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, was studied using the paper disc diffusion assay then further examined for determination of minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). The result showed that the crude dichloromethane extract exhibited the relatively highest antioxidant activity with IC50 value of 2.05 mg/mL and its ferric reducing ability of 0.0397 mmol Fe2+/g extract.
The crude dichloromethane extract also showed the relatively highest amount of TPCs at 81.04±0.016 mg GAE/g extract. Moreover, the crude dichloromethane extract and crude hexane extract inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus with MBC values of 50 mg/mL of both crude extracts. This finding indicated that the crude dichloromethane and crude hexane gall extracts from P. pilifera have potential to be able to develop further as a herbal supplement for the therapeutic antimicrobial activities.


Download data is not yet available.


Damsud T, Chanwun T, Srimek N. et al. Antioxidant and -Glucosidase inhibitory activities of Young Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) extract, KKU Science Journal. 2017; 45(3):
Inta T, Saelee A, Sam-ang P. et al. Inhibition Staphylococcus aureus and antioxidant activity of crude extract from rested celosin (Celosia cristata), PSRU Journal of Science and Technology. 2019; 4(2): 34-42.
Pengkumsri N, Kantamul C, Towattanakit, P. et al. Antioxidative effect of alpinia conchigera rhizome extracts, Thai Pharmaceutical and Health Science Journal. 2011; 6(3): 195-201.
Ahmad MU, Islam MR, Huq E. et al. Chemical investigation of the aerial parts of Paederia foetida Linn, Journal of Bangladesh Academy of Science. 1991; 15: 19-22.
Basri DF, Fan SH. The potential of aqueous and acetone extracts of galls of Quercus infectoria as antibacterial agents, Indian Journal of Pharmacology. 2004; 37: 26-29.
Cheung S, Ninghon, L. Chinese medical herbs of Hong Kong, Commercial Press Hong Kong. 1985; 2: 160-161.
Fathabada A E, Shariatifar N, Mardania K. et al. Study on antibacterial and antioxidant activity of Oak gall (Quercus infectoria ) extracts from Iran, International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences. 2015; 14: 44-50.
Ishikura N, Yang SQ, Yoshitama K. et al. Flavonol glycosides from Paederia scandens var. mairei. Zeitschrift für Naturforschung, C- A Journal of Bioscience. 1990; 45: 1081-1084.
Kapadia GL, Sharma SC, Tokuda H. et al. Inhibitory effect of iridoides on Epstein-Barr virus activation by a short-term in vitro assay of antitumor promoters, Cancer letters. 1996; 102: 223-226.
Kongkathip N, Kongkathip B, Savaspan K. et al. Composition and active compounds with inhibit Herpes simplex virus type 1 isolated from Paederia tomentos, Thailand Patent No. 106131. 2005.
Lippincott JA, Lippincott BB. The genus Agrobacterium and plant tumorigenesis, Annual review of Microbiology. 1975; 29: 377-405.
Nagesh L, Sivasamy S, Muralikrishna KS. et al. Antibacterial potential of gall extract of Quercus infectoria against Enterococcus faecalis an in vitro study, Pharmacognosy Journal. 2012; 4(30): 47-50.
Page MGP. The Role of the Outer Membrane of Gram-negative Bacteria in Antibiotic Resistance: Ajax’ Shield or Achilles’ Heel?. In: Coates A. (eds) Antibiotic Resistance. Berlin, Heidelberg: Handbook of experimental pharmacology vol 211 Springer; 2012.
Pham XS, Nguyen, VK, Le, TTH. Chemical composition and antibacterial effect of leaves of Paederia tomentosa L, Tap Chi Duoc Hoc. 1996; 11: 14-16.
Quang DN, Hashimoto T, Tanaka M. et al. Iridoid glucosides from roots of Vietnamese Paederia scandens, Phytochemistry. 2002; 60: 505-514.
Saelee W, Srisayam M, Phalee W. et al. Effect of egg woman (Phyllanthus spp.) crude extracts on inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus, Proceedings of 4th Pibulsongkramvijai. 2018; 331-338.
Shankara BR, Ramachandra YL, Rajan, SS. et al. In vitro antibacterial activity of Terminalia chebula leaf gall extracts against some human pathogenic strains, International Current Pharmaceutical Journal, 2012; 1(8): 217-220.
Tongpenyai A. Extraction, isolation and biological testing and biological testing for antiviral [Herpes simplex (HSV-1)] constituents from Paederia tomentosa, Junior Science Talent Project National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Bangkok Thailand 31. 2001.
Tran NN. Gop phan vao viec thong ke nhung loai thuc vat coich thuoc ho caphe (Rubiaceae Juss) o Vietnam (Contribution to the enumeration of useful species of the family Rubiaceae juss in Vietnam), Journal of Biology. 1987; 9: 40-44.
Vanga S, Pingili M, Tharigoppula S. Phytochemical screening and evaluation of antifungal activity of gall extracts of Quercus infectoria, International Journal pharmaceutical sciences and research, 2017; 8(7): 3010-3013.
Wang Y, Huang T. Screening of anti-helicobacter pylori herbs deriving from Taiwanese folk medicinal plants, FEMS immunology and medical microbiology. 2005; 43: 295-300.
Wagner WL, Herbst DR, Sohmer SH. A manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii, New Zealand Journal of Botany. 1992; 30: 119-120.
How to Cite
Sam-ang, P., Phanumartwiwath, A., & Kodsueb, R. (2020). IN VITRO ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF GALL EXTRACTS FROM PAEDERIA PILIFERA. Life Sciences and Environment Journal, 21(1), 78-89. Retrieved from
Research Articles