• Suchinthorn Songsittidet Faculty of Industrial Technology, Pibulsongkram Rajabhat University
  • Donyarit Settasuwacha Faculty of Industrial Technology, Pibulsongkram Rajabhat University




Low-Carbon Society, Carbon Emissions, Travel Behavior


Pollution caused by transport poses a high percentage of health threats in urban areas which causes serious diseases and leads to death. The purpose of this study was to study the fuel consumption in the transport sector, vehicle selection behavior, and important factors affecting travel in Phitsanulok city municipality. The study consisted of 400 samples by using questionnaires to analyze the statistical results. From the study, it was found that each type of fuel consisted of Benzene, Gasohol 91, Gasohol 95, Gasohol E20 and Gasohol E85 used at 166,155,256.02 liters/year, and diesel fuel consisted of Diesel B7, Diesel B10 and Diesel B20 were used at 3,941,085.20 liters/year. From fuel consumption, it was found that the CO2 emissions were 326,562.09 tCO2/year or, representing 0.04% of the whole country. The factors influencing the decision to choose the travel mode of private car users include 1) safety 2) travel time 3) cost 4) accessibility 5) waiting time 6) trips 7) service and 8) routes, respectively, which are different from public traveler consist of 1) cost 2) safety 3) travel time 4) waiting time 5) service 6) accessibility 7) trips and 8) routes, respectively. All stakeholders must jointly campaign to change travel behavior by developing and promoting public transportation in conjunction with using electric vehicles. For better quality and health of citizens in the city, leading to a sustainable low-carbon society.



Activity Project Linking Research and Policy Sector. Low carbon society: Development paradigms and mobilization. TRR Policy Brief 2013;3(8):1-7.

Chatterton T, Barnes J, Wilson RE, Anable J, Cairns S. Variations in car type, size, usage and emissions across Great Britain and relationships with socio-demographic characteristics. Newcastle: United Kingdom Transportation Studies Group (UKSG); 2014.

Department of Health. The studying impacts and predicting health impacts from air pollution and the development of health indices due to air quality in Thailand. 2020. Available at: https://hia.anamai.moph.go.th/th/research/download/?did=208776&id=90702&reload=. Accessed April 3, 2022.

Department of Disease Control. The department of disease control advises people who are gradually returning after the New Year to adhere to the D-M-H-T-T principle to protect themselves from COVID-19. 2021. Available at: https://ddc.moph.go.th. Accessed April 1, 2022.

Faure E, Finnveden G, Gunnarsson-Ostling U. Four low-carbon futures for a Swedish society beyond GDP growth. Journal of Cleaner Production 2019;236:1-13.

Khaimook, K. Fundamental statistics. Numfon Publishing, Bangkok; 2003.

King Mongkut's University of Technology North Bangkok. Sustainable development model development project in the context of Low Carbon City at the case study area level: the area of the lower central region 2. Environmental Research and Training Center, Department of Environmental Quality Promotion; 2013.

King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi. A study of energy consumption in electric vehicles with behavioral data on electric vehicle usage. Final Report, King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok; 2017.

Leknoi U. Suburban community to green community driven guideline: Low carbon community. Journal of MCU Peace Studies, Mahachulalongkornrajavidyalaya University 2017;5(2):56-74.

Muekhuntod J. Satisfaction of the community on public park services at Nangrong Municipality, Nangrong District, Buriram Province. Master of Civil Engineering Thesis, School of Civil Engineering, Suranaree University of Technology. Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand; 2016.

Office of Energy Policy and Planning. Carbon dioxide emissions report (CO2) from Energy Consumption in 2021. Ministry of Energy, Bangkok; 2021.

Office of the National Economic and Social Development Council. (2011). National Economic and Social Development Plan 11th edition 2012-2016. 2011.

Available at: https://www.nesdc. go.th/ewt_news.php?nid=5748&filename=develop_issue. Accessed April 3, 2022.

Office of the National Economic and Social Development Council. (2021). National economic and social development plan 11th edition 2012 – 2016. 2021. Available at: https://www.nesdc. go.th/ ewt_news.php?nid=5748&filename=develop_issue, Accessed April 3, 2022.

Phitsanulok City Municipality. Integrated low carbon city; 2014. Available at: https://www.phsmun.go.th

/pages-45-Low%20Carbon%20City. Accessed April 1, 2022.

Phitsanulok Provincial Transport Office. Number of registered cars in Phitsanulok Province. 2021. Available at: http://www.dlt.go.th/site/phitsanulok/m-about/4374/. Accessed April 1, 2022.

Phitsanulok Provincial Public Health Office. Sickness from air pollution. 2021. Available at: https://hdcservice.moph.go.th/hdc/reports/page.php?cat_id=9c647c1f31ac73f4396c2cf987e7448a.

Accessed April 1, 2022.

Phitsanulok City Municipality. Local development plan (2023-2027) Phitsanulok Municipality. Strategy and Budget Division, Phitsanulok City Municipality; 2021.

Prasad M, Munch S. State-level renewable electricity policies and reductions in carbon emissions. Energy Policy 2012:45:237-242.

Pochanaet P. The present state of urban air pollution problems in Thailand’s large cities: case of Bangkok, Chiang Mai, and Rayong. Journal of Environmental Management 2016;12(1):114-133.

Raworth K. A safe and just space for humanity: Can we live within the doughnut? Oxfam, Oxford, UK; 2012.

Ruengphol, S. Greenhouse gas emission from the road transportation sector in Andaman Provinces, Thailand. Master of Science in Technology and Environmental Thesis, Faculty of Technology and Environment, Prince of Songkla University. SongKhla, Thailand; 2016.

Saenkam, B. The Behavior of Thai Tourists after COVID 19 Situations. Journal of Liberal Arts and Service Industry 2021;4(1):160-167.

Sakworawich, A. Determination formula sample size by Yamane. 2016. Available at: from https://businessanalyticsnida.wordpress.com/2016/10/10/on-yamane-misunderstood. Accessed July 16, 2023.

Small Business Credit Guarantee Corporation. Promoting awareness of environmental preservation. 2019. Available at: http://tcg.or.th/news_inside.php?news_id=5327. Accessed April 1, 2022.

Thailand Greenhouse Gas Management Organization. Greenhouse gas reduction calculation for energy sector projects and waste. Analyze and monitor evaluation department, Bangkok, Thailand; 2021.

Thailand Greenhouse Gas Management Organization. Guidelines for efficiency evaluation of local administrative organizations subject: Greenhouse Gas Emissions Data Report. Amarin Printing and Publishing, Bangkok; 2018.

Theaenleh N. Passenger Transport and in a low carbon society: A study hat yai municipality. Master of Civil Engineering Thesis, Faculty of Engineering, Prince of Songkla University. SongKhla, Thailand; 2013.

Waygood EOD, Avineri E. Communicating transportation carbon dioxide emissions information: Does gender impact behavioral response. Transportation Research 2016;48:187-202.

Xiao J, Zhen Z, Tian L, Su B, Chen H, Zhu AX. Green behavior towards low-carbon society : Theory, Measurement, and action. Journal of Cleaner Production 2021;278:1-10.

Yamane T. Statistics: an introductory analysis. New York: New York: Harper & Row; 1973.




How to Cite

Songsittidet, S., & Settasuwacha, D. (2023). A STUDY OF CARBON EMISSIONS IN TRAVELING: A CASE STUDY OF PHITSANULOK MUNICIPALITY. Life Sciences and Environment Journal, 24(2), 412–429. https://doi.org/10.14456/lsej.2023.31



Research Articles