• Suphinya Phiromchom Faculty of Science and Technology, Pibulsongkarm Rajabhat University
  • Suphinya Junrak Faculty of Science and Technology, Pibulsongkarm Rajabhat University
  • Piyada Wachirawongsakorn Faculty of Science and Technology, Pibulsongkarm Rajabhat University




Heavy metals, Contamination, Bioaccumulation, Citrus maxima, Soil


This study analyzed and assessed the heavy metal contaminations and bioaccumulation factors including lead, copper and zinc in soil and three citrus maxima varieties, namely Khaw-Taengkwa, Tha-Khoi and Thong-Dee in Pho Prathap Chang Sub-district, Pho Prathap Chang District, Phichit Province. Soil and Citrus maxima samples were collected in the same garden by random sampling of 10 gardens of each variety, with a total of 30 gardens (Three soil samplings under canopy were collected from 15 citrus maxima trees per garden and citrus maxima samplings were collected 2 samples per garden). Lead, copper and zinc contents in soil and citrus maxima samples were analyzed by using the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The results showed that the averages of lead copper and zinc contents in garden’s soils of all citrus maxima varieties were within the soil quality standards set by the Department of Land Development. For heavy metal contaminations in citrus maximaes, lead contents in Khaw-Taengkwa, Tha-Khoi and Thong-Dee varieties were averaged 5.83±0.94, 6.40±3.56 and 9.95±2.84 mg/kg, exceeding the WHO permissible limits with 65%, 55% and 75%, respectively.
The copper contents exceeded the standard limit only in Tha-Khoi variety with 25%. The amount of zinc contamination was within the standard limit in all citrus maxima varieties. The bio-accumulation factor (BAF) of lead, copper and zinc in all three citrus maxima varieties were less than 1, which were considered these citrus maximaes have a low ability to transport these heavy metals from the soil to accumulate in citrus maxima fruits.


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How to Cite

Phiromchom, S., Junrak , S., & Wachirawongsakorn, P. (2022). EVALUATION OF HEAVY METALS CONTAMINATION AND BIOACCUMULATION IN CITRUS MAXIMA (CITRUS MAXIMA (BURM.) MERRILL) IN PHO PRATHAP CHANG SUB-DISTRICT, PHO PRATHAP CHANG DISTRICT, PHICHIT PROVINCE. Life Sciences and Environment Journal, 23(2), 393–408. https://doi.org/10.14456/lsej.2022.30



Research Articles