Classification of N, P, and K concentrations in durian (Durio Zibethinus Murray CV. Mon Thong) leaves using near-infrared spectroscopy

Main Article Content

Thitima Phanomsophon
Natthapon Jaisue
Nukoon Tawinteung
Lampan Khurnpoon
Panmanas Sirisomboon


A good durian fruit should be supported by sufficient nutrient concentrations. If farmers can quickly determine the nutrient concentration in leaves, they can control fertilisation. Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is a rapid non-destructive test for estimating nutrient concentration. Measuring nutrient concentrations requires chemical analysis and is a time-consuming process. The aim of this paper is a preliminary test for classifying the N, P, and K concentration levels to determine the possibility of creating models in the future to help farmers obtain information on durian tree nutrient requirements quickly. The models reported in this paper were created by PLS-DA, which had higher accuracy than SVM and the SIMCA method. Fresh durian leaf samples were used, and the spectra provided greater accuracy than the dried ground leaf sample spectra. The classification models had an accuracy of 88.89, 81.25, and 86.36% for predicting N, P, and K, respectively.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Phanomsophon, T. ., Jaisue, N. ., Tawinteung, N. ., Khurnpoon, L. ., & Sirisomboon, P. . (2021). Classification of N, P, and K concentrations in durian (Durio Zibethinus Murray CV. Mon Thong) leaves using near-infrared spectroscopy. Engineering and Applied Science Research, 49(1), 127–132. Retrieved from


Wareing PE, Phillips IDG. The control of growth and differentiation in plants. Oxford: Pergamon Press Ltd; 1970.

Maathuis FJM. Plant mineral nutrients: methods and protocols. New York: Humana Press; 2013.

Bassi D, Menossi M, Mattiello L. Nitrogen supply influences photosynthesis establishment along the sugarcane leaf. Sci Rep. 2018;8(1):1-13.

Buchholz D. Nitrogen in the Plant [Internet]. 2018 [cited 2021 Feb 10]. Available from:

Crous KY, Wujeska-Klause A, Jiang M, Medlyn BE, Ellsworth DS. Nitrogen and phosphorus retranslocation of leaves and stemwood in a mature eucalyptus forest exposed to 5 years of elevated CO2. Front Plant Sci. 2019;10:1-13.

Larbi A, Kchaou H, Gaaliche B, Gargouri K, Boulal H, Morales F. Supplementary potassium and calcium improves salt tolerance in olive plants. Sci Hortic. 2020;260:108912.

Chonwatana P. Durian. Bangkok: Kasetsart University; 1987. (In Thai)

Howard K. What Does Nitrogen Do for Plants? [Internet]. 2018 [cited 2021 Feb 10]. Available from:

Chung F. Durian: Crop production cycle and orchard management practices [Internet]. 2018 [cited 2021 Feb 10]. Available from:

Galvez-Sola L, Garcia-Sanchez F, Perez-Perez JG, Gimeno V, Navarro JM, Moral R, et al. Rapid estimation of nutritional elements on citrus leaves by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Front Plant Sci. 2015;6:1-8.

Menesatti P, Antonucci F, Pallottino F, Roccuzzo G, Allegra M, Stagno F, et al. Estimation of plant nutritional status by Vis-NIR spectrophotometric analysis on orange leaves [Citrus sinensis (L) Osbeck cv Tarocco]. Biosyst Eng. 2010;105(4):448-54.

Yarce CJ, Rojas G. Near infrared spectroscopy for the analysis of macro and micronutrients in sugarcane leaves. Zuckerindustrie Sugar Ind. 2012;137(62):707.

Chen M, Glaz B, Gilbert RA, Daroub SH, Barton FE, Wan Y. Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy analysis of phosphorus in sugarcane leaves. Agron J. 2002;94(6):1324-31.

Ketsa S. Durian-Durio zibethinus. In: Rodrigues S, ds Silva EO, de Brito ES, editors. Exotic Fruits. London: Andre Gerhard Wolff; 2018. p. 169-80.

Phanomsophon T, Jaisue N, Tawinteung N, Khurnpoon L, Sirisomboon P. Overall precision test for determination the nutrient in durian leaf in durian orchard using near-infrared spectroscopy. 7th Asian NIR Symposium Conference; 2020 Feb 12-15; Khon Kaen, Thailand; 2020. Khon Kaen: Asian NIR Consortium; 2020.

Aspentech. The Unscrambler [Internet]. 2018 [cited 2021 April 18]. Available from:

Manel MR, Christos C. Support vector machines for antenna array processing and electromagnetics. USA: Morgan & Claypool; 2006.

Zhoua J, Zhoua J, Ye H, Alic ML, Nguyenb HT, Chenc P. Classification of soybean leaf wilting due to drought stress using UAV-based imagery. Comput Electron Agr. 2020;175(5):105576.

Supinrach S. Nutrient management and durian fertilization. Bangkok: Kasetsart University; 2002. (In Thai)

Onthong J. Pechkeo S, Gimsanguan S, Male N. Effect of lime, gypsum and potassium chloride on growth and nutrient uptake of longkong seedling. Songklanakarin J Soc Sci Humanit. 2007;29(3):656-67. (In Thai)

Osborne BG, Fearn T, Hindle PT. Practical NIR spectroscopy: with applications in food and beverage analysis. London: Longman Group; 1993.

Rotbart N, ev Schmilovitch Z, Cohen Y, Alcahantis V, Erel R, Ignat T, et al. Estimating olive leaf nitrogen concentration using VIS-NIR spectral reflectance. Biosyst Eng. 2013;114(4):426-34.

Al-Abbas A, Barr R, Hall J, Crane F, Baumgardner M. Spectra of normal and nutrient-deficient maize leaves. Agron J 1974;66(1):16-20.

Conzen JP. Multivariate calibration. Berlin: Bruker Ltd; 2006.

Tobias RD. An introduction to partial least squares regression. Proceedings of the Twentieth Annual SAS Users Group International Conference; 1995 Apr 2-5; Orlando, USA. Cary: SAS Institute Inc; 1995.

Hadoux X, Gorretta N, Roger JC, Bendoula R, Rabatel G. Comparison of the efficacy of spectral pre-treatments for wheat and weed discrimination in outdoor conditions. Comput Electron Agr. 2014;108;242-9.

Kurdziela BM, Latowskia D, Strzałkaa K. The chlorophyll C family. Adv Bot Res. 2019;90;91-119.

Heldt HW, Piechulla B. Plant biochemistry. California: Elsevier Inc; 2011.

Salarat V. Extraction, phytochemical screening, anti-oxidant and anti-bacteria from Annona muricata [Internet]. Thailand: Burapha University; 2016 [cited 2021 Feb 10]. Available from: (In Thai)