The significance of the mode of voltage imbalance on the operation and energy losses of a 3-phase induction motor

Main Article Content

Aderibigbe Israel Adekitan
Ademola Abdulkareem


Induction motors are key to the operation of industries due to their ruggedness, but their performance is often impaired by power supply quality issues. This has triggered research on how voltage imbalance affects the operation and performance of such motors. This study considers the effect of the manner of variation of the positive sequence voltage component on the output power, losses and sensitivity of induction motor parameters. It applies three scenarios of positive sequence variation with respect to the negative sequence component. The results show that the performance of the motor, i.e., motor losses, output power, and the sensitivity of the motor’s torque, power, and efficiency to sequence currents is dependent on the level of imbalance, and also, on the nature of the positive sequence voltage variation. Hence, the same level of voltage imbalance can trigger different operational scenarios and losses depending on how the imbalance occurs.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Adekitan, A. I., & Abdulkareem, A. (2019). The significance of the mode of voltage imbalance on the operation and energy losses of a 3-phase induction motor. Engineering and Applied Science Research, 46(3), 200-209. Retrieved from


[1] Bamisile O, Dagbasi M, Babatunde A, Ayodele O. A review of renewable energy potential in Nigeria; Solar power development over the years. Eng Appl Sci Res. 2017;44(4):242-8.

[2] Pillay P, Manyage M. Definitions of voltage unbalance. IEEE Power Eng Rev. 2001;21(5):50-1.

[3] de Castro e Silva MD, Ferreira Filho AL, Neves ABF, Mendonça MVB. Effects of sequence voltage
components on torque and efficiency of a three-phase induction motor. Elec Power Syst Res. 2016;140 (Supplement C):942-9.

[4] Gnacinski P. Derating of an induction machine under voltage unbalance combined with over or undervoltages. Energ Convers Manag. 2009;50(4):1101-7.

[5] Chowdary DD, Kumar GVN. Mitigation of voltage sags in a distribution system due to three phase to ground fault using DVR. Indian J Eng Mater Sci. 2010;17(2):113-22.

[6] Adekitan AI. Supply instability induced torque variations of a three phase asynchronous motor. Int J Mech Eng Tech. 2018;9(6):572-83.

[7] Kini G, Bansal R, S. Aithal R. Impact of voltage unbalance on the performance of three-phase induction motor. S Pac J Nat Sci. 2006;24(1):45-50.

[8] Kostic M. Effects of Voltage Quality on Induction Motors’ Efficient Energy Usage. In: Arauujo RE, editor. Induction Motors - Modelling and Control. UK: InTech; 2012. p. 127-56.

[9] Donolo P, Bossio G, De Angelo C. Analysis of voltage unbalance effects on induction motors with open and closed slots. Energ Convers Manag. 2011;52(5):2024-30.

[10] Donoloa P, Bossioa G, Angeloa CD, Garcíaa G, Donolo M. Voltage unbalance and harmonic distortion effects on inductionmotor power, torque and vibrations. Elec Power Syst Res. 2016(140):866-73.

[11] Bouzid MBK, Champenois G, Tnani S. Reliable stator fault detection based on the induction motor negative sequence current compensation. Int J Electr Power Energy Syst. 2018;95:490-8.

[12] Rageh H. Unbalanced Supply Voltage 2011. [updated 2011 Sep 14]. Available from: http://www. ltage.html.

[13] Petrushin V, Plotkin J, Yenoktaiev R. Сharacteristics of adjustable high-phase order induction motors and their optimal design. Int J Electr Eng Informat. 2017;9(2):364-81.

[14] Tousizadeh M, Che HS, Selvaraj J, Rahim NA, Ooi BT. Performance comparison of fault-tolerant three-phase induction motor drives considering current and voltage limits. IEEE Trans Ind Electron. 2019;66(4):2639-48.

[15] Himanshu KP. Steady state and transient performance analysis of three phase induction machine using MATLAB simulations. Int J Recent Trends Eng. 2009;1(3):266-70.

[16] Bina MT, Kashefi A. Three-phase unbalance of distribution systems: complementary analysis and experimental case study. Int J Electr Power Energ Syst. 2011;33(4):817-26.

[17] Adekitan A, Ogunjuyigbe ASO, Ayodele TR. The impact of supply phase shift on the three phase induction motor operation. Eng Rev. 2019;39(3):270-82.

[18] Adekitan A, Samuel I, and Amuta E, Dataset on the performance of a three phase induction motor under balanced and unbalanced supply voltage conditions. Data in Brief, 2019. 24: p. 103947. DOI:

[19] Quispe EC, López-Fernández XM, Mendes AMS, Cardoso AJM, Palacios JA. Experimental study of the effect of positive sequence voltage on the derating of induction motors under voltage unbalance. IEEE International Electric Machines and Drive Conference IEEE; 2011 May 15-18; Niagara Falls, ON, Canada. USA: IEEE; 2011.

[20] Faiz J, Ebrahimpour H. Precise derating of three phase induction motors with unbalanced voltages. Energ Convers Manag. 2007;48(9):2579-86.

[21] Lee CY, Chen BK, Lee WJ, Hsu YF. Effects of various unbalanced voltages on the operation performance of an induction motor under the same voltage unbalance factor condition. Industrial and Commercial Power Systems Technical Conference; 1997 May 11-16; Philadelphia, PA, USA. USA: IEEE; 1997.

[22] Chandrakanth SA, Kumar N, Chelliah TR, Srivastava SP. Sensitivity analysis of model-based controller applied to loss minimization of induction motor. 2012 IEEE 5th India International Conference on Power Electronics (IICPE); 2012 Dec 6-8; Delhi, India. USA: IEEE; 2012.

[23] Rajinder, Sreejeth M, Singh M. Sensitivity analysis of induction motor performance variables. 2016 IEEE 1st International Conference on Power Electronics, Intelligent Control and Energy Systems (ICPEICES); 2016 Jul 4-6; Delhi, India. USA: IEEE; 2016.

[24] Adekitan A, Ogunjuyigbe A, Ayodele R, Samuel I. The performance of a 3-phase induction machine under unbalance voltage regime. J Eng Sci Tech Rev. 2017;10(5):136-43.

[25] Faiz J, Ebrahimpour H. Precise derating of three-phase induction motors with unbalanced voltages. Fourtieth IAS Annual Meeting Conference Record of the 2005 Industry Applications Conference; 2005 Oct 2-6; Kowloon, Hong Kong. USA: IEEE; 2005.

[26] Neves ABF, Filho ALF, Mendonca MVB. Effects of voltage unbalance on torque and efficiency of a three-phase induction motor. IEEE 16th International Conference on Harmonics and Quality of Power (ICHQP); 2014 May 25-28; Bucharest, Romania. USA: IEEE; 2014.

[27] Quispe E, Lopez I. Effects of unbalanced voltages on the energy performance of three-phase induction motors. 2015 IEEE Workshop on Power Electronics and Power Quality Applications (PEPQA); 2015 Jun 2-4; Bogota, Colombia. USA: IEEE; 2015.

[28] Jalilian A, Roshanfekr R. Analysis of three-phase induction motor performance under different voltage unbalance conditions using simulation and experimental results. Elec Power Compon Syst. 2009;37(3):300-19.

[29] Faiz J, Ebrahimpour H , Pillay P. Influence of unbalanced voltage on the steady-state performance of a three-phase squirrel-cage induction motor. IEEE Trans Energ Convers. 2004;19(4):657-62.

[30] Singh SB, Singh AK. Precise assessment of performance of induction motor under supply imbalance through impedance unbalance factor. J Electr Eng. 2013;64(1):31-7.