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Trends in Thailand’s extreme temperature indices and their relationship with global mean temperature (GMT) change are analyzed, based on longer quality controlled temperature data during 1955–2018. Widespread significant trends of extreme temperature indices with a clear warming evident in all indices are observed, consistent with the earlier results and general global warming. Changes associated with the upper tails of the minimum and maximum temperature distributions are the dominant feature of Thailand’s extreme temperature indices accounting for more than 65% of the total variance. Analysis of the probability distribution functions (PDFs) of combined extreme temperature indices further shows significant shifts in their distributions toward warmer conditions in the recent decades. The results suggest that daytime and nighttime temperatures in Thailand have become more extreme and that the changes are related to shifts in multiple aspects of the daily temperature distributions. With long-term temperature records, this study provides more confident and robust evidence of trends in Thailand’s temperature extremes occurred since the second half of 20th century. Another noteworthy finding is that most of Thailand’s extreme temperature indices show a distinct linear relationship with GMT, indicating that local-scale changes in temperatures and its extreme at local scale are related almost linearly to GMT change. The extrapolated values of the indices with strong linearity with GMT show substantial distinction with nearly 50% increase between 2 global warming levels set by Paris Agreement, highlighting that half a degree increase in GMT will lead to greatly increase in Thailand’s temperature extremes.
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