Comparison of NDWI, MNDWI1 and MNDWI2 Indices from Sentinel-2 Satellite Images for Extracting Urban Surface Water Bodies in Khon Kaen

Main Article Content

Chaiyarit Sawetwong
Pipat Reungsang


The objective of this research is to compare methods for determining the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and the Modified Normalized Difference Water Index (MNDWI) and resistance to urban and urban disturbances. From classification of visual information (Pixel-based) to extract surface water areas from Sentinel-2 satellite imagery. By checking for accuracy with the surface water area dragged the boundary from satellite imagery data from Google Earth found that the ideal Threshold of the NDWI Index is 0.1 and that of the MNDWI index is 0.35. Which is overall accurate at both 0.58, the MNDWI index was more efficient than the NDWI index.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Sawetwong, C., & Reungsang, P. (2021). Comparison of NDWI, MNDWI1 and MNDWI2 Indices from Sentinel-2 Satellite Images for Extracting Urban Surface Water Bodies in Khon Kaen. Journal of Applied Informatics and Technology, 4(1), 1–12.


วัชระ ดอนลาว และสวรินทร์ ฤกษ์อยู่สุข. (2563). การสกัดข้อมูลพื้นที่แหล่งน้ำบนภาพถ่ายดาวเทียมด้วยกูเกิลเอิร์ธเอนจิน. วารสารวิชาการเพื่อการพัฒนานวัตกรรมเชิงพื้นที่ (JSID), 1(2), 14–23.

ศรัญญา หารมาก และสรวิศ สุภเวชย์ (2562). การประมวลผลข้อมูลจากดาวเทียมเพื่อหาพื้นที่ที่มีศักยภาพพัฒนาเป็นแหล่งน้ำถาวร. [วิทยานิพนธ์, มหาวิทยาลัยเกษตรศาสตร์].

โสลดา คงสังข์, จุติเทพ วงษ์เพ็ชร์ และชูพันธุ์ ชมภูจันทร์. (2562). การจำแนกพื้นที่ผิวน้ำจากข้อมูลภาพถ่ายดาวเทียม Landsat-8 OLI โดยใช้วิธีดัชนีน้ำแบบ NDWI. วารสารสมาคมสํารวจข้อมูลระยะไกลและสารสนเทศภูมิศาสตร์แห่งประเทศไทย, 20(ฉบับพิเศษ), 260–272.

Acharya, T.D., Subedi, A., & Lee, D.H. (2018). Evaluation of water indices for surface water extraction in a Landsat 8 scene of Nepal. Sensors, 18(2), 2580.

Beringer, A.L., Inmuong, Y., & Kaomuangnoi, K. (2018). Understanding urban vulnerabilities to climate change impacts in Khon Kaen and Mukdahan in Thailand. Social Science Asia, 4(4), 1–13.

Bijeesh, T.V., & Narasimhamurthy, K.N. (2020). Surface water detection and delineation using remote sensing images: A review of methods and algorithms. Sustainable Water Resources Management, 6, 68, 1–23.

Binary Thresholding function—ArcMap | Documentation. (n.d.). Retrieved October 9, 2021, Retrieved from

Brodu, N. (2016). Super-resolving multiresolution images with band-independent geometry of multispectral pixels. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 55(8), 4610–4617.

Chawla, I., Karthikeyan, L., & Mishra, A. K. (2020). A review of remote sensing applications for water security: Quantity, quality, and extremes. Journal of Hydrology, 585, 124826.

Drusch, M., Del Bello, U., Carlier, S., Colin, O., Fernandez, V., Gascon, F., & Bargellini, P. (2012). Sentinel-2: ESA’s optical high-resolution mission for GMES operational services. Remote Sensing of Environment, 120, 25–36.

Du, Y., Zhang, Y., Ling, F., Wang, Q., Li, W., & Li, X. (2016). Water bodies’ mapping from Sentinel-2 imagery with modified normalized difference water index at 10-m spatial resolution produced by sharpening the SWIR band. Remote Sensing, 8(4), 354.

Huang, C., Chen, Y., Zhang, S., & Wu, J. (2018). Detecting, extracting, and monitoring surface water from space using optical sensors: A review. Reviews of Geophysics, 56(2), 333–360.

Ji, L., Zhang, L., & Wylie, B. (2009). Analysis of dynamic thresholds for the normalized difference water index. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 75(11), 1307–1317.

Li, J., Pei, Y., Zhao, S., Xiao, R., Sang, X., & Zhang, C. (2020). A review of remote sensing for environmental monitoring in China. Remote Sensing, 12(7), 1130.

Louis, J., Debaecker, V., Pflug, B., Main-Knorn, M., Bieniarz, J., Mueller-Wilm, U., & Gascon, F. (2016). Sentinel-2 Sen2Cor: L2A processor for users. in Living Planet Symposium (pp. 1–8).

McFeeters, S. K. (2007). The use of the normalized difference water index (NDWI) in the delineation of open water features. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 17(7), 1425–1432.

McHugh, M.L. (2012). Interrater reliability: The Kappa statistic. Biochemia Medica, 22(3), 276–282.

Ongsomwang, S., Pattanakiat, S. & Srisuwan, A. (2019). Impact of land use and land cover change on ecosystem service values: A case study of Khon Kaen city, Thailand. Environment and Natural Resources Journal, 17(4), 43–58.

Otsu, N. (1979). A threshold selection method from gray-level histograms. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and, Cybernetics, 9(1), 62–66.

Özelkan, E. (2020). Water body detection analysis using NDWI indices derived from Landsat-8 OLI. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 29(2), 1759–1769.

Story, M., & Congalton, R. G. (1986). Accuracy assessment: A user’s perspective. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 52(3), 397–399.

Tan, M.L., Tew, Y.L., Chun, K.P., Samat, N., Shaharudin, S.M., Mahamud, M.A., & Tangang, F.T. (2021). Improvement of the ESA CCI Land cover maps for water balance analysis in tropical regions: A case study in the Muda River Basin, Malaysia. Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies, 36, 100837.

Topp, S.N., Pavelsky, T.M., Jensen, D., Simard, M., & Ross, M.R.V. (2020). Research trends in the use of remote sensing for inland water quality science: Moving towards multidisciplinary applications. Water, 12(1), 169.

Xu, H. (2007). Modification of normalised difference water index (NDWI) to enhance open water features in remotely sensed imagery. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 27(14), 3025–3033.

Yang, X., Zhao, S., Qin, X., Zhao, N., & Liang, L. (2017). Mapping of urban surface water bodies from Sentinel-2 MSI imagery at 10 m resolution via NDWI-Based image sharpening. Remote Sensing, 9(6), 596.