Citations and References

In-text Citation and Reference Section

       Citations of published literature in the text should be given in APA in-text style. APA uses the author’s last name and the year of publication. All references mentioned in the Reference list must be cited in the text, and vice vera.

  • One author: (Klingman, 1992)
  • Two authors: (Chen & Li, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Chen et al., 2001)

       If the name forms part of a sentence, it should be followed by the year in parenthesis.

  • One author: Klingman (1992)
  • Two authors: Chen & Li (2001)
  • Three or more authors: Chen et al. (2001)

       The References section at the end of the manuscript should list all, only the references cited in the text in alphabetical order of the first author’s surname and no number in front of each reference. Titles of the journal or conference proceedings are not abbreviated. The following are examples of reference writing.

1. Reference to a Journal Article

Chen, J. & Li, Y. (2006). Coal fly ash as an amendment to container substrate for Spathiphyllum production. Bioresource Technology. 97(1), 1920-1926.

2. Reference to Article or Abstract in a Conference proceeding

Klingman, L.A. (1992). Induction of floral bud in Lansium domesticum by different rates and times of application of chloroethyl phosphonic acid. Proceedings of the 5th Tropical Fruit Crop Symposium, Chiang Mai, Thailand, August 10-12, 1992, 231-236.

3.  Reference to a Book

Perry, R.H. and Chilton, C.H. (1973). Chemical Engineers Handbook, McGraw-Hill, New York, U.S.A.

4.  Reference to an Edited Book

Day, P.R. (1965). Particle fractionation and particle size analysis. In Methods of Soil Analysis, C.A. Black, editor. Agronomy no. 9, Part 1. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, Wisconsin, U.S.A.

5.  Reference to an Electronic Data Source

       Please used electronic data source only when unavoidable.

USGS. (2008). Earthquake Search. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 15 April 2008. Retrieved from

       References should be prepared single line spacing. The following are examples of the Reference section.



Armstrong, T.S. et al. (2016). The symptom burden of primary brain tumors: evidence for a core set of tumor- and treatment-related symptoms. Neuro-oncology, 18(2), 252–260.

Back, M., Back, E., Kastelan, M., & Wheeler, H. (2014). Cognitive deficits in primary brain tumours: A framework for management and rehabilitation. Journal of Cancer Therapy, 5(1), 74-81.

Bunevicius, A., Deltuva, V., Tamasauskas, S., Tamasauskas, A., Laws, E.R., Jr, & Bunevicius, R. (2013). Low triiodothyronine syndrome as a predictor of poor outcomes in patients undergoing brain tumor surgery: A pilot study. Journal of neurosurgery, 118(6), 1279–1287.

Cai, L., Gao, J., & Zhao, D. (2020). A review of the application of deep learning in medical image classification and segmentation. Annals of Translational Medicine. 8(11), 713.

Chakrabarty, N. (2021). Brain MRI images for brain tumor detection. Retrieved 8 December 2022. Retrieved from

Johnson, D.R., Sawyer, A.M., Meyers, C.A., O’Neill, B.P., & Wefel, J.S. (2012). Early measures of cognitive function predict survival in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Neuro-Oncology, 14(6), 808-816.

Mehdy, M.M., Ng, P.Y., Shair, E.F., Saleh, N.I., & Gomes, C. (2017). Artificial neural networks in image processing for early detection of breast cancer. Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine, 2017, 1-15.

Raza, S. (2021). Brain Tumor Detector. Retrieved 8 December 2022. Retrieved from