Main Article Content
A highway-railway grade crossing (HRGC) is a special type of intersection where the right-of-way between the highway authorities and the state railway are shared. The traffic warning devices can be divided into two groups: passive (e.g. stop sign), andactive (e.g. flashing lights and automatic barriers). This paper presents an investigation into the approaching speeds of private vehicles (i.e. motorcycles and cars) at four HRGC locations in Songkhla.At each location, the speed data wasobtained by a speed gun, whereas the driving behavior involving safety issues was collected by video recording. The results show that the average approaching speed of the crossings was approximately 21 kph for the passive, and approximately 40 kph for the active traffic warning devices. Moreover,the response time to traffic warning deviceswas 5.3 and 7.5 seconds for active crossings;9.82 and 9.11 seconds for passive crossings. Although most drivers reduced their speed, some still did not act according to the regulatory signs. This is a critical issue which authorities must take into account.
A. Phatthanawat, R. ChungChua, W. Wijitpongsa and A.Upayokin. (2012) Safety assessment for railroad crossing with traffic sign: A case study Pasao train station to Saraphi train station, the 5th ATRANS Symposium, Thailand, Paper No. SCS12-017, p. 127-135.
Anandarao, S. and C. Martland. (1998) Level-Crossing Safety on East Japan Railway Company: Application of Probabilistic Risk Assessment Techniques. Transportation, 25(3): 265-286.
Australian Transport Safety Bureau. (2002) Monograph 10: Level crossing accidents. Commonwealth Department of Transport and Regional Services, Canberra, Australia.
Brent D. Ogden. (2007) U. S. Department of Transportation, Railroad – highway grade crossing handbook – revised second edition 2007, Office of Safety Design, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D.C., United States of America.
Bureau of Highway Safety. (2010) Highway Railway Grade Crossings Report, Department of Highways, Ministry of Transport, Thailand.
Carroll, Anya; daSilva, Marco P.; Ngamdung,Tashi. (2010) U.S. DOT Federal Railroad Administration's Third Research Needs Workshop on Highway-Rail Grade Crossing Safety and Trespass Prevention, Federal Railroad Administrator, Washington, D.C.
J.K. Caird, J.I. Creaser, C.J. Edwards, and R.E. Dewar. (2002) Human factors analysis of highway-railway grade crossing accidents in Canada, Transportation Development Centre (TDC), Canada.
Jean T. Shope. (2006) Influences on youthful driving behavior and their potential for guiding interventions to reduce crashes, Injury Prevention, vol. 12 (Suppl 1), p. i9-i14.
K.W. Ogden. (1996) Safer Roads: A Guide to Road Safety Engineering, Australia.
Khattak, A. (2008) A Comparison of Driver Behavior at Highway-Railroad Crossing in Two Cities. In TRB 2009 Annual Meeting CD-ROM. Transportation Research Board, Washington D.C.
Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority (LAC/MTA) (1999) Metro Blue Line, Grade Crossing Safety Improvement Program, 1999. Summary of Metro Blue Line Train/Vehicle and Train/Pedestrian Accidents (7/90-9/99).
Moon, Y.J., Coleman III, F. (1999) Driver’s speed reduction behavior at highway-rail intersection. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board 1962 (1), p. 94-105.
National Institute for Emergency Medicine, (2008) The Review of Accident Situation Using Emergency Medical Service Database (EMS), Ministry of Public Health, Thailand.
Office of Inspector General, U. S. Department of Transportation. (2004) Report on the Audit of the Highway-Rail Grade Crossing Safety Program, Washington, D.C., USA, Report No. MH-2004-065.
Office of transportation planning and policy. (2009) A Study Plan for the Safety Measures at Highway–Railway Grade Crossings, Ministry of Transport, Thailand.
Rizavi, A. and B.K. Veeregowda. (2005) Safety at Highway-Railroad Grade Crossings. Eng-Wong, Taub & Associates, New York, USA.
State Railway of Thailand. (2015) SRT Accident Data, Ministry of Transport, Thailand.
Thailand Transport Portal. (2016) Transportation Accident Statistics”, Ministry of Transport, Bangkok, Thailand, at http://vigportal.mot. go.th/portal/site/ PortalMOT/ stat/index7URL/
United Nation. (2010) United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) Road safety in Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok, Thailand.
World Health Organization. (2009) Global status report on road safety: time for action, Geneva, Switzerland.