The Determination of Soil Infiltration Rate of Urban Bioretention Design Process in Chiang Mai, Thailand

Main Article Content

Prattakorn Sittisom
Rapee Tangsongsuwan
Sikarint Munlikawong
Wongkot Wongsapai
Sitthikorn Sitthikankun
Damrongsak Rinchumphu


Stormwater runoff is an issue that is increasingly affecting urban areas because areas that previously were permeable have been developed, and are now impermeable, comprising hard surface areas, whether concrete floors, roads, or buildings. As the size of the problem area increases, the amount of stormwater runoff that needs to be cleared from urban areas increases, and it takes longer for the stormwater to be cleared. The existing basic public drainage systems can no longer sufficiently support the increasing stormwater runoff, directly affecting commuting and lifestyle. These problems have led to the design concept of bioretention, which can be used to increase the efficiency of water infiltration of existing soil areas since a higher water infiltration rate can help relieve the burden on the basic public drainage system and alleviate the abovementioned problems. Bioretention design consists of three layers: the drainage layer at the bottom, the transition layer, and the filter media layer at the top. The critical objective is to design the filter media layer (the top layer) to have a greater infiltration rate than the original soil. This research, therefore, comprises an experiment in which sand is mixed with the original soil to achieve these increased infiltration rates. Three different soil-to-sand ratios were field tested within the area of the Faculty of Engineering, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand with double-ring infiltrometer technique to test the infiltration rate, 1:1, 1:2, and 1:4. This research also applied Horton's Theory of Perforation Prediction Equations; the experiments demonstrated that adding sand can increase the water infiltration rate. The infiltration rates for soil-to-sand ratios of 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3 are 16.09, 21.53, and 28.90 mm/hr., consecutively. 

In addition, understanding the relationship between infiltration rate and sand ratio makes it possible to determine the permeation rate as required. Furthermore, knowing the sand ratio is useful for future planning to achieve the appropriate design.

Article Details

How to Cite
Sittisom, P., Tangsongsuwan, R., Munlikawong, S., Wongsapai, W., Sitthikankun, S., & Rinchumphu, D. (2022). The Determination of Soil Infiltration Rate of Urban Bioretention Design Process in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Nakhara : Journal of Environmental Design and Planning, 21(3), Article 228.
Research Articles


7HD Online. (2022). Fon thalom nam thūam Chīang Mai thanon lāi sāinām thūam sūng kānčharā čhō̜n nai mư̄ang sāhat [Heavy rain floods Chiang Mai; many roads are flooded the traffic in the city is terrible].

Abdelmoneim, A. A., Daccache, A., Khadra, R., Bhanot, M., & Dragonetti, G. (2021). Internet of things (IoT) for double ring infiltrometer automation. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 188, 106324.

Ahammed, F., Rohita Sara, G., Paul Kai, H., & Yan, L. (2021). Optimum numbering and sizing of infiltration-based water sensitive urban design technologies in South Australia. International Journal of Sustainable Engineering, 14(1), 79–86.

Auckland Council. (2018). Rain garden construction guide: Stormwater device information series.

Bodhinayake, W., Si, B. C., & Noborio, K. (2004). Determination of hydraulic properties in sloping landscapes from tension and double-ring infiltrometers. Vadose Zone Journal, 3(3), 964–970.

Boeno, D., Gubiani, P. I., Lier, Q. d. J. V., & Mulazzani, R. P. (2021). Estimating lateral flow in double ring infiltrometer measurements. Revista Brasileira de Ciência do Solo, 45, 0210027.

Facility for Advancing Water Biofiltration. (2009). Adoption guidelines for stormwater biofiltration systems. Facility for Advancing Water Biofiltration.

Franti, T., & Rodie, S. (2007). Stormwater management, rain garden design for homeowners. The University of Nebrsaka-Lincoln NebGuide.

Geberemariam, T. K. (2019). Finite difference method to design sustainable infiltration based stormwater management system. Preprints 2019, 2019020024.

Iftekhar, M. S., & Pannell, D. J. (2022). Developing an integrated investment decision-support framework for water-sensitive urban design projects. Journal of Hydrology, 607, 127532.

Li, M., Liu, T., Duan, L., Luo, Y., Ma, L., Zhang, J.,& Chen, Z. (2019). The scale effect of double-ring infiltration and soil infiltration zoning in a semi-arid steppe. Water, 11(7), 1457.

Lisenbee, W. A., Hathaway, J. M., & Winston, R. J. (2022). Modeling bioretention hydrology: Quantifying the performance of DRAINMOD-Urban and the SWMM LID module. Journal of Hydrology, 612, 128179.

Liu, A., Egodawatta, P., & Goonetilleke, A. (2022). Ranking three water sensitive urban design (WSUD) practices based on hydraulic and water quality treatment performance: Implications for effective stormwater treatment design. Water, 14(8), 1296.

Meng, X., Li, X., Nghiem, L. D., Ruiz, E., Johir, M. A., Gao, L., & Wang, Q. (2022). Improved stormwater management through the combination of the conventional water sensitive urban design and stormwater pipeline network. Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 159, 1164–1173.

Minnesota Pollution Control Agency. (2022). Design infiltration rates. Storm Water.

Northeast Region Certified Crop Adviser (NRCCA). (2010). Soil hydrology AEM. Cornell University.

Osman, M., Wan Yusof, K., Takaijudin, H., Goh, H. W., Abdul Malek, M., Azizan, N. A., & Sa’id Abdurrasheed, A. (2019). A review of Nitrogen removal for urban stormwater runoff in bioretention system. Sustainability, 11(19), 5415.

Public Utilities Board. (2014). Active, beautiful, clean (ABC) waters design guidelines. Singapore's National Water Agency.

Puget Sound Action Team. (2005). Low impact development: Technical guidance manual. Pierce County Extension.

Raju, Y. K., & Hussain, M. (2019). Fitting Infiltration Equations using Double Ring Infiltrometer to Design and Evaluate Irrigation Methods. International Journal of Recent Technology and Engineering (IJRTE), 8(4), 7751–7754.

Rinchumphu, D., & Anambutr, R. (2017). Determination of stormwater runoff infiltration on rain water absorbing garden for landscape architecture. Journal of Environtmental Design, 4(2), 85–101.

Rinchumphu, D., Eves, C., & Susilawati, C. (2013). Brand value of property in Bangkok metropolitan region (BMR), Thailand. International Real Estate Review, 16(3), 296–322.

Senior Stormwater Quality Technical Advisor. (2020). Biofiltration systems in Development Services Schemes: Guideline. Melbourne Water.

Teang, L., Wongwatcharapaiboon, J., Irvine, K., Jamieson, I., & Rinchumphu, D. (2021). Modelling the impact of water sensitive urban design on pluvial flood management in a tropical climate [Paper presentation]. The 12th Built Environment Research Associates Conference, BERAC2021, Bangkok, Thailand.

Thairath Online. (2022). Fon thalom Chīang Mai nam thūam khang rō̜kān rabāi saphāp kānčharā čhō̜n titkhat nap sip čhut [Rain hits Chiang Mai Floodwaters waiting to be drained; traffic congestion counts 10 points].

United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2022). Storm Water Management Model (SWMM).

Wang, X., Sample, D. J., Pedram, S., & Zhao, X. (2017). Performance of two prevalent infiltration models for disturbed urban soils. Hydrology Research, 48(6), 1520–1536. doi:10.2166/nh.2017.217

Wang, M., Zhang, D., Cheng, Y., & Tan, S. K. (2019). Assessing performance of porous pavements and bioretention cells for stormwater management in response to probable climatic changes. Journal of Environmental Management, 243, 157–167.