User Satisfaction and the Social and Environmental Benefits of Urban Green Spaces: A Case Study of Thimphu City, Bhutan

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Chandra Man Rai
Yeshi Dorji
Sangay Zangmo


Urban green spaces provide important recreational, social, and ecological benefits in urban settings. Understanding of the use and benefits associated with green spaces amongst urban residents is crucial in developing appropriate urban green infrastructure strategies. This study explored visitors’ levels of satisfaction with the benefits, characteristics, and determined factors influencing visitor satisfaction with urban green spaces. Data were collected through a questionnaire survey from a random sample of 125 visitors from three urban green spaces in the capital city of Bhutan, Thimphu.  Visitors' satisfaction with urban parks was assessed based on their quality, social, and environmental benefits. Descriptive statistics and an ordered logistic-regression model were used to analyze the data. Results indicate that visitors were satisfied with quality as well as the social and ecological benefits of green spaces. Results also revealed that factors significantly influencing visitor satisfaction included educational level, frequency of visit, day visit, distance from home, quality of the urban park, social benefits, and ecological benefits. Overall, the study stresses the importance of optimizing green infrastructure planning in order to promote social and environmental well-being in the face of the growing populations in urban areas.


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Man Rai, C., Dorji, Y., & Zangmo, S. (2022). User Satisfaction and the Social and Environmental Benefits of Urban Green Spaces: A Case Study of Thimphu City, Bhutan. Nakhara : Journal of Environmental Design and Planning, 21(2), Article 216.
Research Articles


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