Development of guidelines for enhancement of thermal comfort and energy efficiency during winter for Thailand’s senior centers using surveys and computer simulation

Main Article Content

Chorpech Panraluk
Atch Sreshthaputra


The objective of this study is to develop guidelines for thermal comfort and energy efficiency for senior centers during winter. The study was conducted in Phitsanulok, Thailand and it applied 3 study’s methods; field survey, laboratory study, and simulation in scSTREAM–a CFD program and DOE-2 program; to develop the guidelines. With a temperature set-point at 25.0°C in the existing air-conditioned senior centers, the study shows that occupants feel "Slightly cool". These feeling can be adjusted to "Neutral" by applying natural ventilation and fans to generate air speed of 0.57–0.60 m/s during 8:00 AM–1:00 PM, and by setting the temperature set-point at 26.0°C with air speed of 0.10–0.26 m/s during 1:00 AM–4:00 PM. The guidelines can help reduce energy consumption by 23.0 % and can apply for senior centers.  


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Panraluk, C., & Sreshthaputra, A. (2020). Development of guidelines for enhancement of thermal comfort and energy efficiency during winter for Thailand’s senior centers using surveys and computer simulation. Nakhara : Journal of Environmental Design and Planning, 19, 79-96. Retrieved from


American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers [ASHRAE]. (2017). ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 55-2017: Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy. Atlanta: ASHRAE.
American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers [ASHRAE]. (2009). Thermal comfort. In ASHRAE (Ed.), ASHRAE Handbook 2009 Fundamentals (pp.1-30). Atlanta: ASHRAE.
Anuurad, E., Shiwaku, K., Nogi, A., Kitajima, K., Enkhmaa, B., Shimomo, K.,& Yamane, Y. (2003). The new BMI criteria for Asians by the Regional Office for the Western Pacific Region of WHO are suitable for screening of overweight to prevent metabolic syndrome in elder Japanese workers. The Journal of Occupation Health, 45(6), 335-343.
Cena, K. Spotila, J. R., & Avery, H. W. (1986). Thermal comfort of the elderly is affected by clothing, activity, and psychological adjustment. In American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers [ASHRAE] (Ed.), ASHRAE Transactions. (pp. 329-342). Atlanta: ASHRAE.
Chindapol, S., Blair, J., Osmond, P., & Prasad, D. (2016). Elderly Thermal comfort in tropical climates: Identifying the knowledge gap. The International Journal of Aging and Sociedty, 6, 33-44.
Chirarattananon, S., Chaiwiwatworakul, P., Hien, V. D., Rugkwamsuk, P., & Kubaha, K. (2006). Revised Building Energy Code of Thailand: Potential Energy and Power Demand Savings. Proceedings of the 13th Conference on Energy Network of Thailand, Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand. 1-10.
Djongyang, N., Tchinda, R., & Njomo, D. (2010). Thermal comfort: A review paper. Renewable Sustainable Energy Reviews, 14(9), 2626-2640.
Drubach, L.A., Palmer, E. L., Connolly, L. P., Baker, A., Zurakowski, D., & Cypess, A. M. (2011). Pediatric brown adipose tissue: detection, epidemiology, and differences from adults. The Journal of Pediatrics, 159(6), 939-944.
Fanger, P. O. (1972). Thermal comfort analysis and applications in environmental engineering. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Ford, B., Schiano-Phan, R., & Vallejo, J. A. (2000). The architecture of natural cooling, 2nd ed. New York: Routledge.
Geneva,I. I., Cuzzo, B., Fazili, T., & Javaid, W. (2019). Normal body temperature: A Systematic Review. Open Forum Infectious Diseases, 6(4), 1-7.
Guedes, M. C., Matias, L., & Santos, C. P. (2009). Thermal comfort criteria and building design: Field work in Portugal. Renewable Energy, 34(11), 2357-2361.
Health info in Thailand. (2019). Retrieved from:
International Standard Organization. (2005). ISO 7730: 2005 Ergonomics of the Thermal Environment –Analytical determination and interpretation of thermal comfort using calculation of PMV and PPD indices and local thermal comfort criteria. Geneva: ISO.
Jitkajornwanich, K. (2001). New concept on thermal comfort research. Journal of the Faculty of Architecture Silpakorn University. 18, 175-181.
Jitkhajornwanich, K. (2004). Thermal comfort and adaptability to living for local people. Nakhon Pathom: Silpakorn University Research and Development Institute.
Kottek, M., Grieser, J., Beck, C., Rudolf, B., & Rubel, F. (2006). World Map of the Köppen-Geiger Climate. Meteorologische Zeitschrift, 15(3), 259-263.
Lean, H. H., & Smyth, R. (2010). CO2 emissions, electricity consumption and output in ASEAN. Applied Energy, 87(6), 1858-1864.
Lee, P., Swarbrick, M. M., & Ho K. K. Y. (2013). Brown adipose tissue in adult humans: A metabolic renaissance. Endocrine Review, 34(3), 413-438.
Lewis, A. (2015). Designing for an imagined user: Provision for thermal comfort in energy-efficient extra-care housing. Energy Policy, 84, 204-212.
Mahaketa, C. (2013). The update of brown adipose tissue in adult human: Possible target to battle obesity? Royal Thai Army Medical Journal, 66(2), 83-91.
McCartney K. J., & Humphreys M. A., (2002). Thermal comfort and productivity. Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality, and Climate, Monterey, California, USA. 822-827.
Office of the National Economic and Social Development Board Office of Prime Minister, Thailand. (2017). The Twelfth National Economic and Social Development Plan (2017–2021). Bangkok: Office of the Prime Minister.
Office of the National Economic and Social Development Board. (2017). Phitsanulok City Municipality: Project for promoting sustainability in future city of Thailand. Phitsanulok: Phitsanulok City Municipality.
Özdamar, M., & Umarogullari, F. (2018). Thermal comfort and indoor air quality. International Journal of Scientific Research Innovative Technology, 5(3), 90-109.
Panraluk, C., & Sreshthaputra, A. (2019). Developing guidelines for thermal comfort and energy saving during hot season of multipurpose senior centers in Thailand. Sustainability, 12, 1-29.
Prasartkul, P., Vapattanawong, P., Rittirong, J., Chuanwan, S., Kanchanachitra, M., Jaratsit, S., Thianlai, K., Aruntippaitun, S., Mathuam, J., & Sena, K. (2017). Situation of the Thai elderly 2017. Bangkok: Deuan Tula Printing House.
Ransiraksa, R. (2006). Thermal comfort in Bangkok residential buildings, Thailand. Proceedings of the 23rd Conerence on Passive and Low Energy Architecture, Geneva, Switzerland.
Saito, M., Okamatsu-Ogura, Y., Matsushita, M., Watanabe, K., Yoneshiro, T., Nio-Kobayashi, J., Iwanaga, T., Miyagawa, M., Kameya, T., Nakada, K., Kawai, Y., & Tsjisaki, M. (2009). High incidence of metabolically active brown adipose tissue in healthy adult humans: effects of cold exposure and adiposity. Diabetes, 58(7), 1526-1531.
Simone, A., Babiak, J., Bullo, M., Landkilde, G., & Olesen, B.W. (2007). Operative temperature control of radiant surface heating and cooling system. Proceedings of Clima 2007 Wellbeing Indoors, Helsinki, Finland.
Software Cradle. (2020). scSTREAM. Retrieved from:
St-Onge, M. P., & Gallagher, D. (2010). Body composition changes with aging: The cause or the result of alterations in metabolic rate and macronutrient oxidation?. Nutrition, 26(2), 152-155.
Stoops J. L. (2004). A possible connection between thermal comfort and health. Proceedings of ACEEE 2004 Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, California, USA. 331-341.
Strategy and Planning Division. (2019). Retrieved from:
Tartarini, F., Cooper, P., & Flaming, R. (2017). Thermal environment and thermal sensation of occupants of nursing homes: a field study. Procedia Engineering, 180, 373-382.
The ASEAN post. (2020). Retrieved from:
The International Renewable Energy Agency [IRENA]. (2017). Renewable energy rises across Asia: IRENA Quarterly. Abu Dhabi: IRENA.
The Thai Meteorological Department. (2018). Retrieved from:
Tsuzuki, K., & Ohfuku, T. (2002). Thermal sensation and thermoregulation in elderly compared to young people in Japanese winter season. Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality, and Climate, Monterey, California, USA, 659-664.
University of California, & Hirsch J. J. (2008). Overview of DOE-2.2. Berkeley: University of California.
van Hoof, J., & Hensen, J. L. M. (2006). Thermal comfort and older adults. Gerontechnology, 4(4), 223–228.
Wang, Y., Groot, Rd., Bakker, F., Wörtche, H., & Leemans, R. (2016). Thermal comfort in urban green spaces: a survey on a Dutch university campus. International Journal of Biometeorology, 61, 87-101.
World Commission on Environment and Development. Our Common Future. (1987). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Yimprayoon, C. (2016). Zero Energy Building. Journal of Architectural /Planning Research Studies, 13(2), 1-30.