Mono-Economy and Urban Vulnerability: A Case Study of Pak Phanang Municipality in Nakhon Si Thammarat Province

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Rawin Thinnakorn


This paper examines the relationship between mono-economic growth and urban sensitivity. The selected case study is the Pak Phanang Municipality of Nakhon Si Thammarat Province, which has a mono-economy of bird’s-nest businesses as its main economic base. The research methodology was divided into three parts. Part 1 includes the study of changing urban morphology caused by the growth of the mono-economy and the evaluation of urban decline from decentralization according to the theory of spatial centrality. Part 2 studies the distribution patterns of spatial and social sensitivity, using quantitative research and an indicator-based approach from the Social Vulnerability Index. Part 3 determines the relationship between economic, social, and spatial sensitivities together with the concentration of the mono-economy by applying an overlay technique. The study indicated that the growth of the mono-economy from bird’s nest businesses in the city center caused urban decline due to two significant factors: (1) Changing urban morphology — the city was not able to attract employment and various economic activities, which accelerated the migration of the population; (2) Changes in the socio-economic structure of the city center — as seen in the socio-economic sensitivity index — it was found that the city center had a high concentration of bird’s nest businesses which was greater than other urban areas. Therefore, the results determine that the growth of the mono-economy was the root cause of urban decline and an increased urban sensitivity. One potential suggestion is to strengthen the economic base of the city and create a variety of urban conditions to solve the root problems and help decrease urban vulnerability.


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Thinnakorn, R. (2019). Mono-Economy and Urban Vulnerability: A Case Study of Pak Phanang Municipality in Nakhon Si Thammarat Province. Nakhara : Journal of Environmental Design and Planning, 17, 111-134. Retrieved from


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