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This paper presents a case study on the role objects played in the construction of Thai women as social subjects in the period of American Era and Development. Based on the analysis of popular Thai etiquette manual Kritsana son nong: Naenam marayat thi ngam haeng araya samai, I conducted oral history interviews with women growing up in the period. The conversation brought to light the term pen sao and illustrated that while certain objects and practices were portrayed generally as signs of modernity and civilisation, they could also be perceived as suspicious when being viewed as signs of gender differences.
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