Development of Packaging Films Based on Polyvinyl Alcohol and a Tannic Acid Blend for Inactivation of Bacteria in Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Fillets

DOI: 10.14416/


  • Pattama Naewkanya Division of Chemical Process Engineering Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, King Mongkut's University of Technology North Bangkok (Rayong Campus)
  • Nataporn Sowasod Division of Chemical Process Engineering Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, King Mongkut's University of Technology North Bangkok (Rayong Campus)


Tannic acid, polyvinyl alcohol, tilapia, inactivation of bacteria, packaging film


This research aims to develop packaging films based on a tannic acid (TA) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) blend for the inactivation of bacteria on tilapia fillets. The weight ratios of PVA and TA blend were divided into three parts: PVA5/TA0, PVA5/TA5, and PVA5/TA10. In the case of tannic acid, 10% of glutaraldehyde (based on the weight of PVA and TA) was used as a crosslinker. The experimental results showed that the color of films increased with increasing tannic acid content because tannic acid was brownish yellow. The thickness, moisture content, and water vapor permeability of the film tended to increase with increasing tannic acid content. The mechanical properties of the film change with the increase in the content of tannic acid in the film; the tensile strength and Young’s modulus increase while elongation at break decreases. The analysis of FT-IR found that the increased content of tannic acid affected the film structure by increasing the presence of hydroxyl (-OH) groups.  The efficacy of film on the inactivation of bacteria in tilapia fillets showed that the color of the fillets slightly increased with increasing tannic acid content after being stored in the refrigerator at 4±2 °C for 7 days. However, increasing the amount of tannic acid inhibited bacterial growth better. It was found that films with the weight ratios of PVA5/TA5 and PVA5/TA10 could be used to store tilapia fillets in the refrigerator at 4±2 °C for more than 7 days without the total viable bacteria count exceeding the standard of the Thai Agricultural Commodity and Food Standard (< 5×105 CFU/g).


Download data is not yet available.


J. Bonilla, E. Fortunati, L. Atares, A. Chiralt and J.M. Kenny, Physical, structural and antimicrobial properties of poly vinyl alcohol-chitosan biodegradable films, Food Hydrocolloids, 2013, 35, 463 – 470.

P. Cazón , M. Vazquez and G. Velazquez, Cellulose – glycerol – polyvinyl alcohol composite films for food packaging: evaluation of water adsorption, mechanical properties, light-barrier properties and transparency, Carbohydrate Polymers, 2018, 195(21), 432 – 443.

H. Haghighi, S.K. Leugoue, F. Pfeifer, H.W. Siesler, F. Licciardello, P. Fava and A. Pulvirenti, Development of antimicrobial films based on chitosan-polyvinyl alcohol blend enriched with ethyl lauroyl arginate (LAE) for food packaging applications, Food Hydrocolloids, 2020, 100, 105419.

S.B. Bahrami, S.S. Kordestani, H. Mirazadeh and P. Mamsoori, Poly (vinyl alcohol) – chitosan blends: preparation, mechanical and physical properties, Iranian Polymer Journal, 2002, 12(2), 139 – 146.

S.Y. Park, S.T. Jun and K.S. Marsh, Physical properties of PVOH/chitosan blended films cast form different solvents, Food Hydrocolloids, 2001, 15, 499 – 502.

K. Lewandowska, Surface studies of microcrystalline chitosan/poly (vinyl alcohol) mixtures, Applied Surface Science, 2012, 263, 115 – 123.

Y. Chen, L. Peng, T. Liu, Y. Wang, S. Shi and H. Wang, Poly (vinyl alcohol)-tannic acid hydrogels with excellent mechanical properties and shape memory behaviors, ACS applied materials and interfaces, 2016, 8(40), 27199 – 27206.

M.P. Balasubramaniam, P. Murugan, D. Chenthamara, S.G. Ramakrishnan, A. Salim, F.-H. Lin, B. Robert and S. Subramaniam Synthesis of chitosan-ferulic acid conjugated poly (vinyl alcohol) polymer film for an improved wound healing, Materials Today Communications, 2020, 25, 101510.

F. Debiagi, R.K. Kobayashi, G. Nakazato, L.A. Panagio and S. Mali, Biodegradable active packaging based on cassava bagasse, polyvinyl alcohol and essential oils, Industrial Crops and Products, 2014, 52, 664 – 670.

J. Liao, J. Li, H. Wang, Y. Zhu, H. Essawy, G. Du and X. Zhou, Development of antioxidant packaging film based on Chinese bayberry tannin extract and polyvinyl alcohol, Journal of Renewable Energy, 2022, 10(1), 19 – 31.

P. Buzzini, P. Arapitsas, M. Goretti, E. Branda, B. Turchetti, P. Pinelli, F. Ieri and A. Romani, Antimicrobial and antiviral activity of hydrolysable tannins, Mini-Review Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 2008, 8, 1179 – 1187.

N. Sahiner, S. Sagbas, M. Sahiner, C. Silan, N. Aktas and M. Turk, Biocompatible and biodegradable poly (tannic acid) hydrogel with antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 2016, 82, 150 – 159.

E. Tomaszewska, P. Dobrowolski, A. Winiarska-Mieczan, M. Kwiecien, A. Tomczyk and S. Muszynski, The effect of tannic acid on the bone tissue of adult male Wistar rats exposed to cadmium and lead, Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology, 2017, 69(3), 131 – 141.

S. Lau, J. Wahn, G. Schulz, C. Sommerfeld and U. Wahn, Placebo-controlled study of the mite allergen-reducing effect of tannic acid plus benzyl benzoate on carpets in homes of children with house dust mite sensitization and asthma, Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, 2002, 13, 31 – 36. v3/614af620ef4140f e44141855/download. (Accessed on 10 December 2022) (Accessed on 10 December 2022)

H. Yong, X. Wang, R. Bai, Z. Miao, X. Zhang and J. Liu, Development of antioxidant and intelligent pH-sensing packaging films by incorporating purple-fleshed sweet potato extract into chitosan matrix, Food Hydrocolloids, 2019, 90, 216 – 224.

AOAC, Official Methods of Analysis, 16th ed., Association of Official Analytical Chemists, VA, USA, 2000.

Y. Hu, V. Topolkaraev, A. Hiltner and E. Baer, Measurement of water vapor transmission rate in highly permeable films, Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 2001, 81(7), 1624 – 1633.

ASTM D882, Standard Test Method for Tensile Properties of Thin plastic Sheeting, 1997.

N. Samsalee, N. Romsomsa and S. Musika, Physicochemical mechanical and thermal properties of edible film from Man Lueat (Dioscorea alata) flour, RMUTP Research Journal, 2021, 15, 24 – 39. (in Thai)

A.K. Das, M.N. Islam, M.O. Faruk, M. Ashaduzzaman and R. Dungani, Review on tannins: Extraction processes, applications and possibilities, South African journal of Botany, 2020, 135, 58 – 70.

J.A. da Cruz, A.B. da Silva, B.B. Ramin, P.R. Souza, K.C. Popat, R.S. Zola, M.J. Kipper and A.F. Martins, Poly (vinyl alcohol)/cationic tannin blend films with antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, Materials Science & Engineering C, Materials for biological applications, 2020, 107, 110357.

N. Samsalee and R. Sothornvit, Characterization of food application and quality of porcine plasma protein-based films incorporated with chitosan or encapsulated turmeric oil, Food and Bioprocess Technology, 2020, 13, 488 – 500.

TACFS 7001 – 2004, Thai Agricultural Commodity and Food Standard (TACFS), Tilapia, National Bureau of Agricultural Commodity and Food Standards (ACFS), 2004. (in Thai)

A. Pandey and P.S. Negi, Phytochemical composition, in vitro antioxidant activity and antibacterial mechanisms of Neolamarckia cadamba fruits extracts, Natural Product Research, 2018, 32, 1189 – 1192.

K.-T. Chung, Z. Lu and M.W. Chou, Mechanism of inhibition of tannic acid and related compounds on the growth of intestinal bacteria, Food and Chemical Toxicology, 1998, 36, 1053 – 1060.

B. Kaczmarek, Tannic acid with antiviral and antibacterial activity as a promising component of biomaterials – A minireview, Materials, 2020, 13, 3224.






บทความวิจัย (Research article)