Influence of Metakaolin on Mechanical Properties of Fly Ash Geopolymer Mortar Reinforced with Steel Fibers
Keywords:High calcium fly ash, Metakaolin, Geopolymer mortar, Steel fiber
This research aimed to study the influence of metakaolin on the properties of fly ash geopolymer mortar mixed with steel fibers. The metakaolin was used to replace high calcium fly ash at the percentages of 0, 10, 20, and 30 by weight. The effect of fiber content on the properties of the mortar was also studied. The slump flow, unit weight, compressive strength, and flexural strength were investigated. The results showed that the use of metakaolin at the percentages 10 and 30 have the highest value of compressive strength and flexural strength 4.21 and 5.06 MPa, respectively. Steel fibers can be used to increase compressive strength and flexural strength. However, the slump flow was decreased when the metakaolin and the fiber were added at the percentages 7.47 to 25.67 and 6.34 to 30.27, respectively. In addition, the unit weight of geopolymer mortar decreased at the percentage of 4.29 when metakaolin was increased. In contrast, the unit weight of geopolymer mortar was increased at the percentage of 6.06 by the addition of steel fiber.
Z. He, X. Zhu, J. Wang, M. Mu and Y. Wang, Comparison of CO2 emissions from OPC and recycled cement production, Construction and Building Materials, 2019, 211, 965-973.
M.F. Alnahhal, U.J. Alengaram, M.Z. Jumaat, F. Abutaha, M.A. Alqedra and R.R. Nayaka, Assessment on engineering properties and CO2 emissions of recycled aggregate concrete incorporating waste products as supplements to Portland cement, Journal of Cleaner Production, 2018, 203, 822-835.
J. Davidovits, Geopolymers: Inorganic polymeric new materials, Journal of Thermal Analysis and calorimetry, 1991, 37(8), 1633-1656.
M. Ahmaruzzaman, A review on the utilization of fly ash, Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 2010, 36(3), 327-363.
C. Li, H. Sun and L. Li, A review: The comparison between alkali-activated slag (Si+ Ca) and metakaolin (Si+ Al) cements, Cement and Concrete Research, 2010, 40(9), 1341-1349.
A.A. Ahmed and Y. Jia, Effect of using hybrid polypropylene and glass fibre on the mechanical properties and permeability of concrete, Materials, 2019, 12(22), 3786.
W. Kaufmann, A. Amin, A. Beck and M. Lee, Shear transfer across cracks in steel fibre reinforced concrete, Engineering Structures, 2019, 186, 508-524.
R.I. Gilbert and E.S. Bernard, Post-cracking ductility of fibre reinforced concrete linings in combined bending and compression, Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, 2018, 76, 1-9.
J.S. Lawler, D. Zampini and S.P. Shah, Permeability of cracked hybrid fiber-reinforced mortar under load, Materials Journal, 2002, 99(4), 379-385.
M.G. Chorzepa, M. Masud, A. Yaghoobi and H. Jiang, Impact test: Multiscale fiber-reinforced concrete including polypropylene and steel fibers, ACI Structural Journal, 2017, 114(6), 1429-1444.
J.L. Provis, P. Duxson and J.S. van Deventer, The role of particle technology in developing sustainable construction materials, Advanced Powder Technology, 2010, 21(1), 2-7.
ASTM C618, Standard Specification for Coal Fly Ash and Raw or Calcined Natural Pozzolan for Use in Concrete, 2019.
ASTM C128, Standard Test Method for Density, Relative Density (Specific Gravity), and Absorption of Fine Aggregate, 2015.
ASTM C136, Standard Test Method for Sieve Analysis of Fine and Coarse Aggregates, 2006.
ASTM C29/C29M, Standard Test Method for Bulk Density ("Unit Weight") and Voids in Aggregate, 2017.
P. Nuaklong, J. Chittanurak, P. Jongvivatsakul, W. Pansuk, A. Lenwari and S. Likitlersuang Effect of hybrid polypropylene-steel fibres on strength characteristics of UHPFRC, Advances in Concrete Construction, 2020, 10(1), 1-11.
ASTM C1611/C1611M, Standard Test Method for Slump Flow Of Self-Consolidating Concrete, 2018.
ASTM C39/C39M, Standard Test Method for Compressive Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens, 2021.
ASTM C1609, Standard Test Method for Flexural Performance of Fiber-Reinforced Concrete (Using Beam With Third-Point Loading), 2019.
D.L. Kong, J.G. Sanjayan and K. Sagoe-Crentsil, Comparative performance of geopolymers made with metakaolin and fly ash after exposure to elevated temperatures, Cement and Concrete Research, 2007, 37(12), 1583-1589.
J.J. Brooks and M.M. Johari, Effect of metakaolin on creep and shrinkage of concrete, Cement and Concrete Composites, 2021, 23(6), 495-502.
A.S. Sayyad and S.V. Patankar, Effect of steel fibres and low calcium fly ash on mechanical and elastic properties of geopolymer concrete composites, Indian Journal of Materials Science, 2013.
N. Ranjbar and M. Zhang, Fiber-reinforced geopolymer composites: A review, Cement and Concrete Composites, 2020, 107, 103498.
P. Nuaklong, V. Sata and P. Chindaprasirt, Properties of metakaolin-high calcium fly ash geopolymer concrete containing recycled aggregate from crushed concrete specimens, Construction and Building Materials, 2018, 161, 365-373.
T.W. Cheng, J.P. Chiu, Fire-resistant geopolymer produced by granulated blast furnace slag, Minerals Engineering, 2003, 16(3), 205-210.
O.A. Hodhod, S.E. Alharthy and S.M. Bakr, Physical and mechanical properties for metakaolin geopolymer bricks, Construction and Building Materials, 2020, 265, 120217.
X. Guo and X. Pan, Mechanical properties and mechanisms of fiber reinforced fly ash–steel slag based geopolymer mortar, Construction and Building Materials, 2018, 179, 633-641.
K.H. Younis, Mechanical performance of concrete reinforced with steel fibres extracted from post-consumer tyres, The second International Engineering Conference on Developments in Civil and Computer Engineering Applications 2016 (IEC2016), Proceeding, 2016, 162-169.
T. Matsumoto and H. Mihashi, JCI-DFRCC summary report on DFRCC terminologies and application concepts, The JCI International Workshop on Ductile Fiber Reinforced Cementitious Composites Application and Evaluation (DFRCC 2002), Proceeding, 2002, 59-66.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.ผลงานวิจัยและบทความวิชาการที่ปรากฏในวารสารนี้ เป็นความคิดเห็นอิสระของผู้เขียน ผู้เขียนจะต้องเป็นผู้รับผิดชอบต่อผลทางกฎหมายใด ๆ ที่อาจจะเกิดขึ้นจากบทความนั้น กองบรรณาธิการและคณะจัดทำวารสารฯไม่จำเป็นต้องเห็นด้วยเสมอไป