Production of Earthworm Manure from Chrome Leather Scraps

DOI: 10.14416/


  • Thanyanan Sripanlom Program of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Nakhon Pathom Rajabhat University
  • Vanida Chaichana Program of Crop production Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Nakhon Pathom Rajabhat University
  • Wipada Thungweng Program of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Nakhon Pathom Rajabhat University
  • Sirirat Klinhom Program of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Nakhon Pathom Rajabhat University


Leather shaving, Protein hydrolysate, Alkaline protease, Chromium, Vermicomposting


This research aimed to extract protein hydrolyzate from chrome leather scraps by the chemical method in combination with alkaline protease and extracted protein hydrolyzate was used for earthworm manure. The mixed solution of 3%w/w sodium hydroxide, 5%w/w magnesium oxide and 5%w/w calcium oxide were used as extracting chemicals. After extraction, chrome leather scraps and extracted protein hydrolyzate were utilized as a food ingredient for E. eugeniae earthworm. The growth of earthworm, the weight of earthworm manure, nitrogen content and chromium content of different flooring materials were determined both before and after the experiment. The results showed that (1) the quantity of protein hydrolyzate from chrome leather scraps was 183.20±4.36 mg/L and (2) chrome leather scraps and protein hydrolyzate could be used as a food ingredient and manure production for the earthworm. The chromium content found in both flooring materials after the experiment (40 days) was less than 300 mg/kg. It was shown that alkaline protease is specific for peptide bond cleaving to make protein smaller resulting in chromium removal from leather scraps because of the precipitation of chromium oxide in alkaline solution. Therefore, protein hydrolyzate extracted from chrome leather scrap was a suitable in protein source for earthworm growth, reducing the disposal cost, conserving the environment and guiding the earthworm manure production.


Download data is not yet available.

References (Accessed on 28 July 2021)

N. Siwarungson, Chromium removal from chrome-containing leather waste by enzymetic hydrolysis for protein recovery, Research Report, Chulalongkorn University, Thailand. 1999.

N. Siwarungson, K. Wasantanarut and S. Sawatklang, Protein removal from chrome- containing Leather waste by akaline protease for fish nutrition, Research Report, Thailand Science Research and Innovation (TSRI), Thailand. 2003.

A. Sitthichokaroon, Determination of pollution charge: Case study of tannery industry, Thesis, Chulalongkorn University, Thailand. 2001.

T. Julmanlik and S. Kongruang, Functional properties and applications of egg white protein hydrolysates, Journal of Food Technology, Siam University, 2019, 14(1), 69-78. (in Thai)

P. Jamnong, Study on the optimal production and partial purification of alkaline protease from alkalotolerant Bacillus sp. B12: Feasibility as a commercial detergent additive, Mahidol R2R e-Journal, 2020, 8(1), 34-48. (in Thai)

Environmental Research and Training Center (ERTC), Application of earthworms on decontamination of hazardous residues in soil amendment derived from municipal solid waste, Department of Environmental Quality Promotion (DEQP), Research Report, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, 2019. (in Thai)

V. Chaichana and T. Sripanlom, The potential of vermicompost produced from leather scraps on agricultural systems and environment, Science and Technology, Research Report, Nakhon Pathom Rajabhat University, 2018. (in Thai)

M.M. Taylor, E.J. Diefendorf, W.N. Marmer and E.M. Brown, Enzymatic processing of materials containing chromium and protein, U.S. Patent, US5271912A.

M.M. Taylor, E.J. Diefendorf, W.N. Marmer and E.M. Brown, Effect of various alkalinity-inducing agents on chemical and physical properties of protein products isolated from chromium-containing leather waste, Journal of the American Leather Chemistry Association, 1994, 89, 221-228.

P.N. Sudha, S. Latha and V.L. Bharghavi, Towards chrome free chicken-A pilot scale study to remove chromium from leather waste, a source for poultry feed manufacture, Environmental Science: An Indian Journal, 2011, 6(3), 107-111.

M.M. Bradford, A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding, Analytical Biochemistry, 1976, 72(1-2), 248-254.

Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC): Official Methods of Analysis, 17th Ed., The Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Gaithersburg, MD, USA, 2000.

S. Jaitae, Vermicomposting on organic waste, RMUTP Research Journal, 2015, 9(2), 189-200. (in Thai)

Ministry of University Affairs, Chemistry 1, 11st Ed., Aksorn Charoen Tat ACT Co., Ltd, Bangkok, Thailand, 1998. (in Thai)

A. Pati, R. Chaudhary and S. Subramani, Biochemical method for extraction and reuse of protein and chromium from chrome leather shavings: A waste to wealth approach, Journal of the American Leather Chemists Association, 2013, 108(10), 365-372.

P. Sirithanakorn, K. Pharam and S. Sanusan, Different of bedding on growth of earthworms and vermicompost productions, Khon Kaen Agriculture Journal, 2014, 42(SUPPL 4), 714-721. (In Thai)

R.K. Sinha, S. Herat, S. Agarwal, R. Asadi and E. Carretero, Vermiculture and waste management: Study of action of earthworms Elsinia foetida, Eudrilus euginae and Perionyx excavatus on biodegradation of some community wastes in India and Australia, Environmentalist, 2002, 22, 261-268.

J. Nuchnoon, K. Lertpanich and A. Popan, Effect of bedding toward number of cocoons, body weight and vermicompost production of african night crawler (Eudrilus eugeniae), King Mongkut’s Agricultural Journal, 2017, 35(2), 41-48. (in Thai)

Organic fertilizer standard B.E.2548, Department of Agriculture, Royal Thai Government Gazette, 122, Special Section 109 N, 2005. (in Thai)





บทความวิจัย (Research article)