Nano-particle Study on Non-thermal Plasma Exhaust from Waste Cooking Oil Biodiesel Combustion through Optical and Scanning Mobility Sizers
Keywords:biodiesel, diesel, emission, non-thermal plasma, particulate matter, waste cooking oil
Ascending usage of alternative fuel is primarily due to the fossil fuel predicament. A campaign for renewable energy to upsurge biofuel from wasted oil is progressively addressed. This has encouraged biodiesel to be applied for agricultural and transport sectors as a diesel fuel substitution. Diesel engines are favorable in fuel efficiency that relates to a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Typically, diesel combustion products are a concern for nitrogen oxides inversion of particulate matter. Nevertheless, non-thermal plasma (NTP) is a technique that can mitigate these emissions and may affect to particulate matter characterization. This paper demonstrates a study on the particulate matter-related emissions under NTP state of a four-cylinder diesel engine fueled with waste cooking oil biodiesel (WCO) in comparison to regular diesel. An optical and scanning mobility sizers were used to analyze the particle number and its related characteristics. Basically, the total particle number and surface area concentrations were higher for WCO at the smaller size, leading to the lesser total particle mass. When NTP charger was equipped, the particle masses were reduced for both fuels as caused by electrostatic phenomena that combine small particles to a larger size with lesser concentration. A greater extent of particle coagulation for regular diesel was observed. The NTP charger simultaneously reduced particulate matter and nitric oxide emissions.
S.J. Malode, K.K. Prabhu, R.J. Mascarenhas, N.P. Shetti and T.M. Aminabhavi, Recent advances and viability in biofuel production, Energy Conversion and Management: X, 2021, 10, 100070.
M. Mofijur, Sk.Y.A. Siddiki, Md. B.A. Shuvho, F. Djavanroodi, I.M.R. Fattah, H. C. Ong, M.A. Chowdhury and T.M.I. Mahlia, Effect of nanocatalysts on the transesterification reaction of first, second and third generation biodiesel sources- A mini-review, Chemosphere, 2021, 270, 128642.
G.G. Karunasena, J. Ananda and D. Pearson, Generational differences in food management skills and their impact on food waste in households, Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 2021, 175, 105890.
M. Elkelawy, E.A. Shenawy, S.K. Almonem, M.H. Nasef, H.N Panchal, H.A. Bastawissi, K.K. Sadasivuni, A.K. Choudhary, D. Sharma and M. Khalid, Experimental study on combustion, performance, and emission behaviours of diesel /WCO biodiesel/Cyclohexane blends in DI-CI engine, Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 2021, 149, 684-697.
C. Komintarachat and S. Chuepeng, Catalytic enhancement of calcium oxide from green mussel shell by potassium chloride impregnation for waste cooking oil-based biodiesel production, Bioresource Technology Reports, 2020, 12, 100589.
H. Sanli, M. Canakci, E. Alptekin, A. Turkcan and A.N. Ozsezen, Effects of waste frying oil based methyl and ethyl ester biodiesel fuels on the performance, combustion and emission characteristics of a DI diesel engine, Fuel, 2015, 159, 179-187.
T. Boningari and P.G. Smirniotis, Impact of nitrogen oxides on the environment and human health: Mn-based materials for the NOx abatement, Current Opinion in Chemical Engineering, 2016, 13, 133-141.
G.T. Kim, B.H. Seo, W.J. Lee, J. Park, M.K. Kim and S.M. Lee, Effects of applying non-thermal plasma on combustion stability and emissions of NOx and CO in a model gas turbine combustor, Fuel, 2017, 194, 321-328.
V. Thonglek and T. Kiatsiriroat, Agglomeration of sub-micron particles by a non-thermal plasma electrostatic precipitator, Journal of Electrostatics, 2014, 72, 33-38.
H. Matsuno, N. Hishinuma, K. Hirose, K. Kasagi, F. Takemoto, Y. Aiura and T. Igarashi, Dielectric Barrier Discharge Lamp, United States Patent, 1998, 5757132.
C. Ma, J. Gao, L. Zhong and S. Xing, Experimental investigation of the oxidation behavior and thermal kinetics of diesel particulate matter with non-thermal plasma, Applied Thermal Engineering, 2016, 99, 1110-1118.
Z. Wang, H. Kuang, J. Zhang, L. Chu and Y. Ji, Nitrogen oxide removal by non-thermal plasma for marine diesel engines, RSC Advances, 2019, 9, 5402-5416.
M. Babaie, T. Kishi, M. Arai, Y. Zama, T. Furuhata, Z. Ristovski, H. Rahimzadeh and R.J. Brown, Influence of non-thermal plasma after-treatment technology on diesel engine particulate matter composition and NOx concentration, International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 2016, 13, 221-230.
M.R. Khani, E.B. Pour, S. Rashnoo, X. Tu, B. Ghobadian, B. Shokri, A. Khadem and S.I. Hosseini, Real diesel engine exhaust emission control: indirect non-thermal plasma and comparison to direct plasma for NOx, THC, CO, and CO2, Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering, 2020, 181, 743-754.
T. Wang, X. Zhang, J. Liu, H. Liu, Y. Wang and B. Sun, Effects of temperature on NOx removal with Mn-Cu/ZSM5 catalysts assisted by plasma, Applied Thermal Engineering, 2018, 130, 1224-1232.
I. Jõgi, K. Erme, J. Raud and E. Stamat, Plasma and catalyst for the oxidation of NOx, Plasma Sources Science and Technology, 2018, 27, 035001.
P. Wang, W. Gu, L. Lei, Y. Cai, and Z. Li, Micro-structural and components evolution mechanism of particular matter from diesel engines with non-thermal plasma technology, Applied Thermal Engineering, 2015, 91(3), 1-10.
M. Rattanathom, S. Chuepeng and S. Gururatana, Physio-geometrical characterization of combustion generated nano-particle emissions from a palm oil based biodiesel fueled agricultural engine, The Journal of Industrial Technology, 2018, 14(1), 22-39.
C.S. Cheung, X.J. Man, K.W. Fong and O.K. Tsang, Effect of waste cooking oil biodiesel on the emissions of a diesel engine, Energy Procedia, 2015, 66, 93-96.
J. Bunger, J. Krahl, K. Baum, O. Schroder, M. Muller, G. Westphal, P. Ruhnau, T.G. Schulz and E. Hallier, Cytotoxic and mutagenic effects, particle size and concentration analysis of diesel engine emissions using biodiesel and petrol diesel as fuel, Archives of Toxicology, 2000, 74, 490-498.
X.J. Mana, C.S. Cheung, Z. Ning, L. Wei and Z.H. Huang, Influence of engine load and speed on regulated and unregulated emissions of a diesel engine fueled with diesel fuel blended with waste cooking oil biodiesel, Fuel, 2016, 180, 41-49.
L. Wei, C.S. Cheung and Z. Ning, Influence of waste cooking oil biodiesel on combustion, unregulated gaseous emissions and particulate emissions of a direct-injection diesel engine, Energy, 2017, 127, 175-185.
A.N. Ozsezen, M. Canakci, A. Turkcan and C. Sayin, Performance and combustion characteristics of a DI diesel engine fueled with waste palm oil and canola oil methyl esters, Fuel, 2009, 88(4), 629-636.
M.S. Koçak, E. Ileri and Z. Utlu, Experimental study of Emission parameters of biodiesel fuels obtained from canola, hazelnut, and waste cooking oils, Energy & Fuels, 2007, 21(6), 3622-3626.
R.G. Ewing and M.J. Waltman, Production and utilization of CO3- produced by a corona discharge in air for atmospheric pressure chemical ionization, International Journal of Mass Spectrometry, 2010, 296, 53-58.
J. Gao, C. Ma, S. Xing and L. Sun, Oxidation behaviours of particulate matter emitted by a diesel engine equipped with a NTP Device, Applied Thermal Engineering, 2017, 119, 593-602.
J. Gao, C. Ma, S. Xing, L. Sun and L. Huang, Nanostructure analysis of particulate matter emitted from a diesel engine equipped with a NTP reactor, Fuel, 2017, 192, 35-44.
Z. Bo, J. Yan, X. Li, Y. Chi and K. Cen, Nitrogen dioxide formation in the gliding arc discharge-assisted decomposition of volatile organic compounds, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 2009, 166, 1210-1216.
C. Song, F. Bin, Z. Tao, F. Li and Q.. Huang, “Simultaneous removals of NOx, HC and PM from diesel exhaust emissions by dielectric barrier discharges, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 2009, 166, 523-530.
P. Rounce, A. Tsolakis and A.P.E. York, Speciation of particulate matter and hydrocarbon emissions from biodiesel combustion and its reduction by aftertreatment, Fuel, 2012, 96, 90-99.
B.M. Penetrante and S.E. Schultheis. Non-thermal plasma techniques for pollution control: Part B - Electron beam and electrical discharge processing, Springer Verlag, Berlin, 1993.
T. Wongchang, S. Sittichompoo, K. Theinnoi, B. Sawatmongkhon and S. Jugjai, Impact of high-voltage discharge after-treatment technology on diesel engine particulate matter composition and gaseous emissions, ACS Omega, 2021, 6(32), 21181-21192.
J. Jolibois, K. Takashima and A. Mizuno, Application of a non-thermal surface plasma discharge in wet condition for gas exhaust treatment: NOx removal, Journal of Electrostatics, 2012, 70, 300-308.
P. Talebizadeh, M. Babaie, R. Brown, H. Rahimzadeh, Z. Ristovski and M. Arai, The role of non-thermal plasma technique in NOx treatment: A review, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2014, 40, 886-901.
S. Thitipatanapong, S. Chuepeng and P. Visuwan, Characterization of particulate from biodiesel-blended engine equipped with exhaust nonthermal plasma charger using thermo-gravimetric analysis, SAE Technical Paper, 2015, 2015-01-0111.
J. Chae, Non-thermal plasma for diesel exhaust treatment, Journal of Electrostatics, 2003, 57, 251-262.
T. Kuroki, M. Ishidate, M. Okubo and T. Yamamoto, Charge-to-mass ratio and dendrite structure of diesel particulate matter charged by corona discharge, Carbon, 2010, 48, 184-190.
M. Okubo, N. Arita, T. Kuroki and T. Yamamoto, Total diesel emission control technology using ozone injection and plasma desorption, Plasma Chemistry and Plasma Processing, 2008, 28, 173-187.
M. Babaie, P. Davari, P. Talebizadeh, F. Zare, H. Rahimzadeh, Z. Ristovski and R. Brown, Performance evaluation of non-thermal plasma on particulate matter, ozone and CO2 correlation for diesel exhaust emission reduction, Chemical Engineering Journal, 2015, 276, 240-248.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.ผลงานวิจัยและบทความวิชาการที่ปรากฏในวารสารนี้ เป็นความคิดเห็นอิสระของผู้เขียน ผู้เขียนจะต้องเป็นผู้รับผิดชอบต่อผลทางกฎหมายใด ๆ ที่อาจจะเกิดขึ้นจากบทความนั้น กองบรรณาธิการและคณะจัดทำวารสารฯไม่จำเป็นต้องเห็นด้วยเสมอไป