Influence of Speed on Combustion Behavior of a Compression Ignition Engine using Ethanol Blended Diesel Fuel
Keywords:Holy basil leaves, Hot air drying, Microwave-hot air drying, Specific energy consumption
This research has studied the combustion characteristics of a compression ignition (CI) engine or diesel engine when using ethanol-blended diesel and biodiesel as the co-solvent when the engine is running at varying speeds. The objective of this study is to bridge the gap between the research and application. Therefore, the ratios of ethanol-diesel-biodiesel are limited by the biodiesel concentration, currently blended in diesel and sold in the market (3, 7 and 10%) because they are the prospective fuels in the near future. The amounts of ethanol are constrained by the phase separation problem. Tri-blend fuels should be homogeneous liquid phase even though the ambient temperature is low as 10 oC. In addition, they should be stored as long as 3 months with phase stability. The four-cylinder commercial diesel engine without any modification and recalibration was used throughout the experiment. Four fuels including 3 ratios of ethanol-diesel-biodiesel (DB3E5, DB7E5 and B10E10) blend and one commercial diesel with 7% of biodiesel (DB7) were used to test. To understand its effect on the influence of each fuel on combustion behaviors, the engine speed has been varied from 1400-2800 rpm. The results found that the combustion characteristics have been changed the same for all test fuels when engine speed was varied. The form of combustion feature is dependent on engine speed and does not rely on test fuels. However, at each engine speed ethanol tends to delay the ignition while adding biodiesel as the additive could advance combustion. The retarded combustion results in a higher rate of heat release and shorter combustion duration.
 https://web.dlt.go.th /statistics/. (Accessed on 15 January 2021) (in Thai)
 A. Milovanoff, I.D. Posen, B.A. Saville and H.L. MacLean, Well-to-wheel greenhouse gas implications of mid-level ethanol blend deployment in Canada's light-duty fleet, 2020, 131, 110012.
 J. Han, A. Elgowainy and M. Wang, Well-to-wheels greenhouse gas emissions analysis of high-octane fuels with various market shares and ethanol blending levels, Argonne, US Department of Energy, 2015, Technical Report, ANL/ESD-15/10: 119162.
 V. Kumar, A.P. Singh and A.K. Agarwal, Gaseous emissions (regulated and unregulated) and particulate characteristics of a medium-duty CRDI transportation diesel engine fueled with diesel-alcohol blends, Fuel, 2020, 278,118269.
 H.Y. Kim, J.C. Ge and N.J. Choi, Effects of ethanol-diesel on the combustion and emissions from a diesel Engine at a low idle speed, Applied Sciences, 2020, 10, 4153.
 http://www.ocsb.go.th/upload/bioindustry/fileupload/10208-8459.pdf (Accessed on 25 February 2021) (in Thai)
 P. Satgé De Caro, Z. Mouloungui, G. Vaitilingom and J.Ch. Berge, Interest of combining an additive with diesel–ethanol blends for use in diesel engines, Fuel, 2001, 80, 565–574.
 M.A. Ghadikolaei, Effect of alcohol blend and fumigation on regulated and unregulated emissions of IC engines—A review, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2016, 57, 1440–1495.
 F.C. Barbosa, Heavy duty ethanol engines – A sustainable approach for transit bus Fleets, SAE Technical Papers, 2015, No. 2015-36-0223.
 H. Liu, B. Hu and C. Jin, Effects of different alcohols additives on solubility of hydrous ethanol/diesel fuel blends, Fuel, 2016, 184, 440-448.
 K. Theinnoi, B. Sawatmongkhon, T. Wongchang, E. Sukjit, S. Chuepeng, The combustion characteristic of fuel additives with diesel–ethanol fuel blends on engine performance, SAE Technical Papers, 2019, No. 2019-32-0611.
 R. Shanmugam, P. Murugesan, G.G. Guye and B. Duraisamy, Effect of additives on the stability of ethanol-diesel blends for IC engine application, Environmental Science and Pollution Research International, 2021, 28, 12153–12167.
 S. Pinzi, l. Lopez, D.E. Leiva-Candia, M.D. Redel-Macizs, J.M. Herreros, A. Cubero-Atienza and M.P. Dorado, Castor oii enhanced effect on fuel ethanol-diesel fuel blend properties, Applied Energy, 2018, 224, 409-416.
 M.H. Low, M.N.A. Mukhtar, FY. Hagos and M.M. Noor, Tri-fuel (diesel-biodiesel-ethanol) emulsion characterization, stability and the corrosion effect, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 2017, 257, 012082.
 N. Al-Esawi, M.A. Qubeissi and R. Kolodnytska, The impact of biodiesel fuel on ethanol/diesel blends, Energies, 2019, 12, 1804.
 S. Madiwale, A. Karthikeyan and V. Bhjwani, Properties investigation and performance analysis of a diesel engine fuelled with Jatropha, Soybean, Palm and Cottonseed biodiesel using ethanol as an additive, Materials Today: Proceedings, 2018, 5(1), 657-664.
 A. Gupta, D. Gupta and N. Kumar Performance evaluation and emission characteristics of biodiesel-alcohol-diesel fuelled in VCR engine, SAE Technical Papers, 2016, No. 2016-01-2265.
 H.K. Imdadul, H.H. Masjuki, M.A. Kalam, N.W.M. Zulkifli, A. Alabdulkarem, M.M. Rashed, Y.H. Teoh and H.G. How, Higher alcohol–biodiesel–diesel blends: An approach for improving the performance, emission, and combustion of a light-duty diesel engine, Energy Conversion and Management, 2016, 111, 174-185.
 F. Aydin and H. Öğüt, Effects of using ethanol-biodiesel-diesel fuel in single cylinder diesel engine to engine performance and emissions, Renewable Energy, 2017, 103, 688-694.
 Y. Noorollahi, M. Azadbakht and B. Ghobadian, The effect of different diesterol (diesel-biodiesel-ethanol) blends on small air-cooled diesel engine performance and its exhaust gases, Energy, 2018, 142, 196-200.
 H. Tse, C.W. Leung, C.S. Cheung, Performances, emissions and soot properties from a diesel-biodiesel ethanol blend fuelled engine. Advances in Automobile Engineering, 2016, S1: 005.
 M.A. Ghadikolaei, L. Wei, C.S. Cheung, K. Yung and Z. Ning, Particulate emission and physical properties of particulate matter emitted from a diesel engine fueled with ternary fuel (diesel-biodiesel-ethanol blended and fumigation modes), Fuel, 2020, 263, 116665.
 J. Barata, Modelling of biofuel droplets dispersion and evaporation, Renewable Energy, 2008, 33(4), 769-779.
 S. Sundarapandian, G. Devaradjane, Performance and emission analysis of biodiesel operated CI engine, Journal of Engineering, Computing and Architecture, 2007, 1(2), 1–22.
 A. Zanier, HW. Jäckle, Heat capacity measurements of petroleum fuels by modulated DSC, Thermochimica Acta, 1996, 287(2), 203–212.
 W.M. Haynes, CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 96th Eds, CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, FL, USA, 2015-2016, 7-9.
 https://webbook.nist.gov/chemistry/ (Accessed on 18 March 2021)
 J.B. Heywood, Internal combustion engine fundamentals, McGraw-Hill Inc., NY, USA, 1988.
 G. Labeckas, S. Slavinskas and M. Mazeika The effect of ethanol–diesel–biodiesel blends on combustion, performance and emissions of a direct injection diesel engine, Energy Conversion and Management, 2014, 79, 698-720.
 O.T. Kaario, V. Vuorinen, H. Kahila, H.G. Im and M. Larmi, The effect of fuel on high velocity evaporating fuel sprays: Large-Eddy simulation on spray A with various fuels, International Journal of Engine research, 2020, 21(1), 26-42.