Two-Wheeled Self-Balancing Vehicle based on Inverted Pendulum Mechanism

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ธนะพงศ์ นพวงศ์ ณ อยุธยา
ไพฑูรย์ รักเหลือ


This article presents Two-wheeled self-balancing vehicle based on inverted pendulum, which has high sensitivity and stability using dynamic sensor, gyroscope, and static sensor, accelerometer to determine tilt angle of moving situation and staying situation, respectively. Both tilt angle sensors of proposed vehicle are controlled via Arduino board. The Arduino board gets a changing tilt angle of two-wheeled self-balancing vehicle from RATE Gyroscope and Accelerometer in order to analyse signal to drive motor for self-balancing and movement of proposed vehicle. In term of measurement procedure, the measured output signal results of RATE Gyroscope is linearly direct variation with angular velocity. Furthermore, the accelerometer’s output signal results is non-linearly direct variation compared with tilt angle of two-wheeled self-balancing vehicle. Practically, the proposed two-wheeled vehicle is examined balancing test depending on external force. When the external force is not exist, proposed two-wheeled self-balancing vehicle stays still at balance position. In other way, when the proposed vehicle is executed by the external force execute, the proposed vehicle becomes tilt from balancing axis cause both sensors detect tilt angle and sent the output signal to Arduino board to drive motor of proposed two-wheeled vehicle for being balancing position again. Finally, Two-wheeled self-balancing vehicle based on inverted pendulum offer low-cost, low-profiles and light-weight alternatives to commercially two-wheeled vehicle and also suitable use as a personal vehicle presently.


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นพวงศ์ ณ อยุธยา ธ., & รักเหลือ ไ. (2018). Two-Wheeled Self-Balancing Vehicle based on Inverted Pendulum Mechanism. Journal of Engineering, RMUTT, 16(1), 63–73. Retrieved from
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