BlockVOTE : An Architecture of a Blockchain-based Electronic Voting System

Main Article Content

Chinnapong Angsuchotmetee
Pisal Setthawong


Voting is an essential activity in the modern democracy. To facilitate the voting process, there are several attempts on proposing an electronic voting system such that, the voting and tallying processes can be done efficiently and the results would be accountable to the public. To date, however, an online electronic voting system has been rarely adopted in practice due to the possibility of having the voting result tampered through vote-rigging or cyber-attacking. In 2009, the blockchain algorithm was proposed by Satoshi Nakamoto. Blockchain is a technique for recording transactions between self-auditing ledgers in an open, distributed, permanent, and verifiable manner. Even though blockchain was originally designed for a financial applications, it is possible to apply blockchain to other domains, including in the implementation of an online decentralized-based electronic voting system. In this study, the architecture of a blockchain-based electronic voting system, named \textit{BlockVOTE}, is proposed. The architecture design and all related formal definitions are given. To validate the proposal, two BlockVOTE prototypes were implemented using two different blockchain application frameworks. The performance analysis of both versions of the prototypes are given. The analysis of both technical and management aspects on the possibility of adopting the proposed decentralized voting system in an actual voting scenario is also given at the end of this study.

Article Details

How to Cite
C. Angsuchotmetee and P. Setthawong, “BlockVOTE : An Architecture of a Blockchain-based Electronic Voting System”, ECTI-CIT, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 174-189, Jul. 2020.
Research Article


[1] R. Dugger, “Annals of democracy: Counting votes," Annals of democracy: Counting votes, vol. 64,
no. 38, p. 40108, 1988.

[2] S. Nakamoto, “Bitcoin: A peer-to-peer electronic cash system,," 2009.

[3] Q. Xia, E. B. Sifah, K. O. Asamoah, J. Gao, X. Du, and M. Guizani, “Medshare: Trust-less medical data sharing among cloud service providers via blockchain," IEEE Access, vol. 5, pp. 14 757-14 767, 2017.

[4] R. Casado-Vara, A. Gonz´alez-Briones, J. Prieto, and J. M. Corchado, “Smart contract for monitoring
and control of logistics activities: Pharmaceutical utilities case study," in International Joint Conference
SOCO’18-CISIS’18-ICEUTE’18, M. Gra~na, J. M. L´opez-Guede, O. Etxaniz, A. Herrero, J. A. S´aez, ´
H. Quinti´an, and E. Corchado, Eds. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2019, pp. 509-517.

[5] T. Kohno, A. Stubblefield, A. D. Rubin, and D. S. Wallach, “Analysis of an electronic voting system,"
in IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy, 2004. Proceedings. 2004, May 2004, pp. 27-40.

[6] A. Hern, “Kids at hacking conference show how easily us elections could be sabotaged hacking," The
Guardian, Aug 2018.

[7] S. Robinson, “Did your vote count? new coded ballots may prove it did," New York Times, Mar 2004.

[8] A. D. Smith and J. S. Clark, “Revolutionising the voting process through online strategies," Online
Information Review, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 513-530, 2005.

[9] B. Simons and D. W. Jones, “Internet voting in the us," Communications of the ACM, vol. 55, no. 10,
pp. 68-77, 2012.

[10] A. Gervais, G. O. Karame, K. W¨ust, V. Glykantzis, H. Ritzdorf, and S. Capkun, “On the security and performance of proof of work blockchains," in Proceedings of the 2016 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security, ser. CCS ’16. New York, NY, USA: ACM, 2016, pp. 3-16.
[Online]. Available:

[11] H. Watanabe, S. Fujimura, A. Nakadaira, Y. Miyazaki, A. Akutsu, and J. Kishigami, “Blockchain contract: Securing a blockchain applied to smart contracts," in 2016 IEEE International Conference on
Consumer Electronics (ICCE), Jan 2016, pp. 467-468.

[12] A. Roehrs, C. A. da Costa, and R. da Rosa Righi, “Omniphr: A distributed architecture model to
integrate personal health records," Journal of Biomedical Informatics, vol. 71, pp. 70 - 81, 2017.
[Online]. Available:

[13] D. Tse, B. Zhang, Y. Yang, C. Cheng, and H. Mu, “Blockchain application in food supply information security," in 2017 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management (IEEM), Dec 2017, pp. 1357-1361.

[14] C. Angsuchotmetee and P. Kaewkandee, “Vodcoin: A cryptocurrency-based architecture for a
decentralized-based video-on-demand service," in Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on
Management of Digital EcoSystems, ser. MEDES ’18. New York, NY, USA: ACM, 2018, pp. 100-105.
[Online]. Available:

[15] J.-H. Huh and K. Seo, “Blockchain-based mobile fingerprint verification and automatic log-in platform for future computing," The Journal of Supercomputing, vol. 75, no. 6, pp. 3123-3139, Jun 2019. [Online]. Available:

[16] P. Noizat, “Chapter 22 - blockchain electronic vote," in Handbook of Digital Currency,
D. L. K. Chuen], Ed. San Diego: Academic Press, 2015, pp. 453 - 461. [Online]. Available:

[17] N. Kshetri and J. Voas, “Blockchain-enabled e-voting," IEEE Software, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 95-99, 2018.

[18] F. . Hjlmarsson, G. K. Hreiarsson, M. Hamdaqa, and G. Hjlmtsson, “Blockchain-based e-voting system," in 2018 IEEE 11th International Conference on Cloud Computing (CLOUD), 2018, pp. 983-986.

[19] E.Yavuz, A. K. Ko, U. C. abuk, and G. Dalkl,“Towards secure e-voting using Ethereum blockchain," in 2018 6th International Symposium on Digital Forensic and Security (ISDFS), 2018, pp. 1-7.

[20] S. Shukla, A. N. Thasmiya, D. O. Shashank, and H. R. Mamatha, “Online voting application using
ethereum blockchain," in 2018 International Conference on Advances in Computing, Communications
and Informatics (ICACCI), 2018, pp. 873-880.

[21] F. Sheer Hardwick, A. Gioulis, R. Naeem Akram, and K. Markantonakis, “E-voting with blockchain:
An e-voting protocol with decentralisation and voter privacy," in 2018 IEEE International Conference
on Internet of Things (iThings) and IEEE Green Computing and Communications (GreenCom) and
IEEE Cyber, Physical and Social Computing (CPSCom) and IEEE Smart Data (SmartData), 2018, pp.

[22] D. Khoury, E. F. Kfoury, A. Kassem, and H. Harb, “Decentralized voting platform based on Ethereum blockchain," in 2018 IEEE International Multidisciplinary Conference on Engineering Technology (IMCET), 2018, pp. 1-6.

[23] W. Li, S. Andreina, J.-M. Bohli, and G. Karame, “Securing proof-of-stake blockchain protocols," in
Data Privacy Management, Cryptocurrencies and Blockchain Technology, J. Garcia-Alfaro, G. NavarroArribas, H. Hartenstein, and J. Herrera-Joancomart´ı, Eds. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2017, pp. 297-315.

[24] E. Androulaki, A. Barger, V. Bortnikov, C. Cachin, K. Christidis, A. De Caro, D. Enyeart, C. Ferris,
G. Laventman, Y. Manevich, S. Muralidharan, C. Murthy, B. Nguyen, M. Sethi, G. Singh, K. Smith,
A. Sorniotti, C. Stathakopoulou, M. Vukoli´c, S. W. Cocco, and J. Yellick, “Hyperledger fabric: A
distributed operating system for permissioned blockchains," in Proceedings of the Thirteenth EuroSys
Conference, ser. EuroSys ’18. New York, NY, USA: ACM, 2018, pp. 30:1-30:15. [Online]. Available:

[25] L. Ismail, H. Hameed, M. AlShamsi, M. AlHammadi, and N. AlDhanhani, “Towards a blockchain
deployment at uae university: Performance evaluation and blockchain taxonomy," in Proceedings of the
2019 International Conference on Blockchain Technology, ser. ICBCT 2019. New York, NY, USA:
ACM, 2019, pp. 30-38. [Online]. Available:

[26] J. Bannet, D. W. Price, A. Rudys, J. Singer, and D. S. Wallach, “Hack-a-vote: Security issues with
electronic voting systems," IEEE Security & Privacy, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 32-37, 2004.

[27] F. Uggla, “Incompetence, alienation, or calculation? explaining levels of invalid ballots and extraparliamentary votes," Comparative Political Studies, vol. 41, no. 8, pp. 1141-1164, 2008.

[28] B. Geys, “Explaining voter turnout: A review of aggregate-level research," Electoral studies, vol. 25,
no. 4, pp. 637-663, 2006.

[29] C. Elsden, A. Manohar, J. Briggs, M. Harding, C. Speed, and J. Vines, “Making sense of blockchain
applications: A typology for hci," in Proceedings of the 2018 CHI Conference on Human Factors in
Computing Systems. ACM, 2018, p. 458.