The Vocational Knowledge Improvement Method for the Post-Modern Worker: A Case Study of the Tourism MRA Body of Knowledge Standards

Main Article Content

Yootthapong Tongpaeng
Pradorn Sureephong
Suepphong Chernbumroong


The ASEAN member countries are going to implement the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA) of Qualifications of Tourism Professionals which is the framework of competency standards with the aim to promote the equality of human resources in the tourism industry and to facilitate the mobility of tourism professionals. However, vocational education and training don’t seem to provide knowledge improvement for the worker in the postmodern era since the completion rate of MOOCs is very low. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to propose a knowledge improvement method for knowledge workers who are working in the tourism industry. In this study, the cognitive load theory and interactive media were employed as methods which are able to improve the knowledge workers’ learning performance via mobile devices. Two experiments were performed in order to find the optimal length of video lectures and the effectiveness of interactive media in MOOCs. The first experiment was performed on sixty-two tourism industry knowledge workers who were divided into four groups randomly. Each group was loaded with different video lengths and different segmentations. The second experiment was done on the same focus group by separating them into control and experiment groups. The experiment group was assigned to use interactive media (2D learning game) right after the learning video. The results show that, by providing the same amount of learning time, the group who were using the smaller video lengths performed significantly better than the other due to lower load of information. Differences in knowledge tests were examined across different conditions of video lengths to measure the learning performance. As a result, the groups which were equipped with interactive media achieved higher test scores than those in non-interactive groups. The evaluation method for the performance test was the same as the first experiment. The results indicate that the interactive group with smaller size of video length performed significantly better than the other group exposed to traditional online learning (using long video in a non-interactive manner).

Article Details

How to Cite
Y. Tongpaeng, P. Sureephong, and S. Chernbumroong, “The Vocational Knowledge Improvement Method for the Post-Modern Worker: A Case Study of the Tourism MRA Body of Knowledge Standards”, ECTI-CIT, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 94-104, Oct. 2019.
Review Article


[1] Association of Southeast Asian Nations. (2013). ASEAN Overview. Retrieved 23 March 2015 from
[2] Ministry of tourism and Sport, Ministry of Tourism and Sport go ahead to develop the performance of Thai workers by E-learning system and get to ASEAN – MRA. 2013. Retrieved 20 March 2015:
[3] Yuan, L and Powell, S. (2013). MOOCs and Open Education: Implications for Higher Education, Available at:
[4] The Maturing of the MOOC: Literature Review of Massive Open Online Courses and other Forms of Online and Distance Learning. (September 2013).
[5] Watts A G 1996. Toward a policy of lifelong career development: A translantic perspective. The Career Development Quarterly 45(1), 41-53.
[6] OECD. 2012. Employment Outlook, United Kingdom, OECD Publishing, Paris.
[7] ILO. 2010. Trabajo Decente y Juventud en América Latina, Avance, February.
[8] Patton, Wendy (2005) A postmodern approach to career education: What does it look like? Perspectives in Education 23(2): pp. 21-28.
[9] Patton W & McMahon M 1999. Career development and systems theory: A new relationship. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
[10] DRUCKER, P.F. 1999. Knowledge worker productivity: the biggest challenge. California Management Review, 419(2):79-94.
[11] El-Hussein, M. O. M., & Cronje, J. C. (2010). Defining Mobile Learning in the Higher Education Landscape. Educational Technology & Society, 13 (3), 12–21.
[12] Kukulska-Hulme, A., & Shield, L. (2007). An overview of mobile assisted language learning: Can mobile devices support collaborative practice in speaking and listening? Retrieved April 15, 2016, from /Kukulska_Hulme_and_Shield_2007.pdf
[13] Samsiah Bidin, Azidah Abu Ziden, “Adoption and application of mobile learning in the education Industry”, Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 90 ( 2013 ) 720 – 729
[14] Hung, P. H., Lin, Y. F., & Hwang, G. J. (2010). Formative assessment design for PDA integrated ecology observation. Educational Technology & Society, 13(3), 33–42.
[15] Goodman, P. S. &Darr, E. D. (1998). "Computer-Aided Systems and Communities: Mechanisms for Organizational Learning in Distributed Environments," MIS Quarterly, (22:4), pp. 417-440.
[16] Northrup, P. 2001. A framework for designing interactivity into Web-based instruction. Educational Technology 41 (2): 31–39.
[17] Laxmisha Rai and Deng Chunrao, “Influencing Factors of Success and Failure in MOOC and General Analysis of Learner Behavior”, International Journal of Information and Education Technology, Vol. 6, No. 4, April 2016.
[18] Conole, G. (2013). MOOCs as Disruptive Technologies: Strategies For Enhancing The Learner Experience and Quality of MOOCs, Available at: [Accessed: 20/04/16].
[19] Belanger, Y. (2013). Bioelectricity: A Qauntitative Approach, Availabale at: C_Fall2012.pdf [Accessed: 21/04/16]
[20] Boyatt, R., Joy, M., Rocks, C., and Sinclair, J. (2013). What (Use) is a MOOC? In Springer, editor, 2nd International Workshop on Learning Technology for Education in Cloud (LTEC).
[21] Cross, S. (2013). Evaluation of The OLDS MOOC Curriculum Design Course: Participant Perspectives and Experiences. OLDS MOOC Project, Milton Keynes
[22] Zichermann, G., & Linder, J. (2013). The gamification revolution: How leaders leverage game mechanics to crush the competition. McGraw Hill Professional.
[23] Domínguez, A., Saenz-de-Navarrete, J., de-Marcos, L., Fernández-Sanz, L., Pagés, C., Martínez-Herráiz, J.-J., 2013. Gamifying learning experiences: practical implications and outcomes. Comput. Educ. 63, 380–392.[24] Gåsland, M., 2013. Game mechanic based e-learning (Master's thesis). Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
[25] Goehle, G., 2013. Gamification and Web-based Homework. Primus: Probl. Resour. Issues Math. Undergrad. Stud. 23, 234–246.
[26] Kirschnera PA, Ayresb P, Chandlerc P (2011). Contemporary cognitive load theory research: The good, the bad and the ugly. Comput. Hum. Behav., 27(1):99-105. article/pii/S0747563210002852
[27] Sweller, J., van Merrienboer, J. J. G., &Paas, F. Cognitive architecture and instructional design. Educational Psychology Review, 10(3), (1998). pp 251–296.
[28] Mayer, R. E. Cognitive theory of multimedia learning, The Cambridge handbook of multimedia learning. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. (2005). 31–48.
[29] Guo, P. J., Kim, J., & Rubin, R. (2014). How video production affects student engagement: An empirical study of MOOC videos. In Proceedings of the first ACM conference on Learning@ scale conference (pp. 41-50).
[30] Zhang, D., and J. F. Nunamaker. 2004. A natural language approach to content-based video indexing and retrieval for interactive e-learning. IEEE Transactions on Multimedia 6 (3): 450–458
[31] Sims, R., G. Dobbs, and T. Hand. 2002. Enhancing quality in online learning: Scaffolding planning and design through proactive evaluation. Distance Education 23 (2): 135–148.
[32] Moore, M. G. 1989. “Three types of interaction”. The American Journal of Distance Education 3 (2): 1–6.
[33] Anderson, L. W. and Krathwohl, D. R., et al (Eds..) (2001) A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing: A Revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. Allyn & Bacon. Boston, MA (Pearson Education Group)