A Social and Cybernetic Psychological Model for the Social Entrepreneurship-driven Community-based Tourism (CBT) Development in Chiang Rai, Thailand

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Chai Ching Tan
Bussaba Sitikarn
Siroj Anomasiri
Athitaya Pathan


Creative use of social entrepreneurship concept for community-based tourism (CBT), or vice
versa, has been recognized as an approach to improve the quality of life of the community as well as
to provide a sustained livelihood that can positively result in educational and tourism-oriented values
to the tourists. Nevertheless, the existing body of knowledge has not, either theoretically or empirically,
informed on a valid structure of framework that can guide the development of the social entrepreneurship-
driven CBT. The concepts of social psychology and contemporary approach of the cybernetic
psychology are used to help provide a theoretical structure to explain the community-based development,
participation, human capitalization, community identity creation, tourism business model design
and implementation, perceptions and attitudes towards CBT. Semi-structural interviews and observations
provide the foundations for maximizing the effect size of the multiple regression analysis of the
theoretical model and the hypotheses deduced, which enables the suitability of the sample size of 88
community member participations in the survey. Empirical validation confirms the proposed social
psychological and cybernetic psychology theories for the use in social entrepreneurship-driven CBT


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