Effects of Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag and Limestone Powder on Threshold Chloride Content of Concrete


  • Taweechai Sumranwanich Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Burapha University
  • Lyna Prak


depassivation time, threshold chloride content, concrete, ground granulated blast-furnace slag, limestone powder


This research aims to study the effect of ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBFS) and limestone powder (LP) on threshold chloride content, the depassivation time of steel and compressive strength of concrete containing GGBFS and LP. The GGBFS was used as a partial replacement of binder at the replacement percentage of 30%, 40%, 50% and 70% and LP was used to replace the binder at the replacement percentage of 5%, 10% and 15%. The water to binder ratio of 0.50 and covering depth of 2 cm were used. The results showed that the threshold chloride content and depassivation time of concrete containing GGBFS and LP was higher than that of cement-only concrete. Concrete with GGBFS had lower threshold chloride content and longer depassivation time with increasing binder replacement content by GGBFS. The use of LP at 5% binder replacement in concrete containing GGBFS gave higher compressive strength of concrete, longer depassivation time of steel and higher corrosion resistance index of steel in concrete.


Download data is not yet available.


Chindaprasirt, P. and Jaturapitakkul, C. Cement, Pozzolan and Concrete.7th edition, Thailand Concrete Association, Bangkok, 2012.

Sumranwanich, T. and Tangtermsirikul, S. Concrete Structure Deterioration. Charansanitwong Printing, Bangkok, 2018.

Fajardo, G., Valdez, P. and Pacheco, J. Corrosion of Steel Rebar Embedded in Natural Pozzolan Based Mortars Exposed to Chlorides. Construction and Building Materials,2009;3: 768-74.

Topu,I.B. and Boga, A.R. Effect of Ground Granulate Blast-Furnace Slag on Corrosion Performance of Steel Embedded in Concrete. Materials and Design, 2010;31:3358-65.

Yeau, K.Y. and Kim, E.K. An Experimental Study on Corrosion Resistance of Concrete with Ground Granulate Blast-Furnace Slag. Cement and Concrete Research, 2005;35:1391-99.

Rerkmahalikhit,A., Sumranwanich, T.,Sancharoen, P. and Tangtermsirikul, S. Chloride Resistance of Portland Cement Mortar with Fly Ash, Limestone Powder and Expansive Additives. The 14th National Convention on Civil Engineering, May 13-15, Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand, 2009.

Khayankij, N., Sumranwanich, T., Sancharoen, P. and Tangtermsirikul, S. Chloride Penetration Resistance of Concrete with Limestone Powder and Fly Ash Exposed to Marine Environment for 2 Years. The 17th National Convention on Civil Engineering, May 9-11, Centara Convention Center Hotel, Udorn-Thani, Thailand, 2012.

Prak,L. and Sumranwanich, T. Investigation of Chloride Penetration and Steel Corrosion in Repaired Concrete After Exposure to Marine Environment of Thailand. Journal of Engineering, RMUTT, 2020;18(1): 165-73.

Gouda,V.K. and Halaka, W.Y. Corrosion and Corrosion Inhibition of Reinforcing Steel: II. Embedded in Concrete. British Corrosion Journal, 1970;5(5): 204-08.

Thai Industrial Standard. TIS.24-2548Steel Bars for Reinforced Concrete: Deformed Bars. Thailand Industrial Standards Institute, Bangkok, 2005.

American Society for Testing and Materials. ASTM G109 Standard Test Method Determining the Effects of Chemical Admixtures on the Corrosion of Embedded Steel Reinforcement in Concrete Exposed to Chloride Environments. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, 2013.

American Society for Testing and Materials. ASTM C876 Standard Test Method for Half-Cell Potentials of Uncoated Reinforcing Steel in Concrete. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, 2004.

American Society for Testing and Materials. ASTM C1152 Standard Test Method for Acid-Soluble Chloride in Mortar and Concrete .ASTM International, West Conshohocken, 2004.

Kayyali, O.A. and Haque, M.N. Chloride Penetration and the Ratio of Cl-/OH-in the Pores of Cement Paste. Cement and Concrete Research,1988;18: 895-900.

Ann, K.Y. and Song, H.W. Chloride Threshold Level for Corrosion of Steel in Concrete. Corrosion Science, 2007;49:4113-33.

DPT 1332-55Concrete Work Standards when Considering the Durability and Service Life. DPT Standard, Department of Public Works and Town & Country Planning of Thailand, Phayathai,Bangkok.

Prak, L. and Sumranwanich, T. Chloride Resistance of Concrete Containing Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag and Limestone Powder. The 18th National Convention on Civil Engineering, May 8-10, Chiang Mai, Thailand, 2013.






Research Articles