Utilization Tests of Diesohols containing Palm Tall Oil Monoacids on a Test Bench and a Fishery Boat

Authors

  • Suppakit Eiadtrong Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Prince of Sonkla University
  • Prathan Srichai Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Prince of Naradhiwas University
  • Gumpon Prateepchaikul Department of Mechanical and Robotic Engineering, School of Engineering and Technology, Walailuk University
  • Asst.Prof.Dr.Theerayut Leevijit Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Prince of Songkla University

Keywords:

Palm fatty acid distillate, Tall oil monoacid, Diesel substitute, Diesohol

Abstract

This research studied the preliminary utilization tests on a test bench and a local fishery boat of diesohols (diesel-alcohols) containing tall oil monoacids from palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD), a cheap by-product of edible palm oil industry, as a diesel replacement and an emulsifier for diesohol production. This work represented the worst case of study to utilize high free fatty acid bio-oils as diesel substitutes. For diesohols in this work, anhydrous ethanol (AhE) and anhydrous n-butanol (AhnB) were used as a cold flow property improver and a simultaneous part of diesel replacement. Diesohols studied consists of 3 formulas including PFAD20AhE5, PFAD30AhE10EHN4000, and PFAD30AhnB20, the number following PFAD and AhE/AhnB is the blending proportion of wt.% with diesel and the number following EHN (cetane improver of 2-ethylhexyl nitrate) is the blending proportion of ppm with diesohol, in which their costs were comparable to that of diesel. Preliminarily, the diesohols were tested in a single-cylinder diesel engine model KUBOTA RT100 DI PLUS on a test bench under high load of 6.40 kW at high speed of 2200 rpm. It was found that all the diesohols could operate the tested engine in the same manner as diesel with slightly lower brake thermal efficiencies than diesel. In addition, the engine was also tested to continuously run under middle load of 3.84 kW at high speed of 2200 rpm for 90 min. The results revealed that all the diesohols were able to continuously run the engine with the good smooth of constant speed as same as diesel. For preliminarily actual utilizations of the diesohols for 15 hr in a local fishery boat mounted with a single-cylinder diesel engine model YANMAR TF120 DI, it was found that all the diesohols were able to provide the acceleration required for driving the boat to tow the fishing net as same as diesel. The overall satisfactions evaluated for the actual utilization and the suitability for actual utilization were in the levels of good-very good as same as diesel. In conclusion, this research explored the great opportunity for the actual utilization of diesohols containing tall oil monoacids from palm fatty acid distillate.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Asst.Prof.Dr.Theerayut Leevijit, Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Prince of Songkla University

Hat Yai, Songkhla, 90110, Thailand

References

Pidol, L., Lecointe, B., Starck, L.and Jeuland, N. Ethanol-biodiesel-Diesel Fuel Blends: Performances and Emissions in Conventional Diesel and Advanced Low Temperature Combustions. Fuel,2012;93: 329-338.

Advanced Petroleum Based Fuels Program and Renewable Diesel Program. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Milestone report: Technical barriers to use of ethanol in diesel fuel, 2001.

Srithammarong, P. Collaborative Research and Development of Diesohol Fuel for Diesel Vehicles in Thailand.MTEC annual meeting 2003, Bangkok, Thailand, 2003; 120-121.

Jin, C., Yao, M., Liu, H., Lee, C.F. and Ji, J. Progress in the Production and Application of N-Butanol as a Biofuel. Renewable Sustainable Energy Review, 2011;15: 4080-4106.

Mofijur, M., Rasul, M.G., Hyde, J., Azad, A.K., Mamat, R. and Bhuiya, M.M.K. Role of Biofuel and Their Binary (Diesel-Biodiesel) and Ternary (Ethanol-Biodiesel-Diesel) Blends on Internal Combustion Engines Emission Reduction. Renewable Sustainable Energy Review,2016; 53: 265-278.

Shahir, S.A., Masjuki, H.H., Kalam, M.A., Imran, A., Rizwanul Fattah I.M. and Sanjid, A. Feasibility of Diesel-Biodiesel-Ethanol/Bioethanol Blend as Existing CI Engine Fuel: an Assessment of Properties, Material Compatibility, Safety and Combustion. Renewable Sustainable Energy Review,2014;32: 379-395.

Shahir, S.A., Masjuki, H.H., Kalam, M.A., Imran, A. and Ashraful, A.M. Performance and Emission Assessment of Diesel-Biodiesel-Ethanol/Bioethanol Blend as a Fuel in Diesel Engines: A Review. Renewable Sustainable Energy Review,2015;48: 62-78.

Vallinayagam, R., Vedharaj, S., Yang, W.M., Roberts, W.L. and Dibble, R.W. Feasibility of Using Less Viscous and Lower Cetane (LVLC) Fuels in a Diesel Engine: A Review. Renewable Sustainable Energy Review,2015;51: 1166-1190.

Kumar, S., Cho, J.H., Park, J. and Moon, I. Advances in Diesel-Alcohol Blends and Their Effects on the Performance and Emissions of Diesel Engines. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,2013; 22: 46-72.

Marek, N. and Evanoff, J. The Use of Ethanol Blended Diesel Fuel in Unmodified, Compression Ignition Engines: an Interim Case Study. The air and waste management association 94th annual conference and exhibition2001, June 24-28, Orlando, FL,2001.

Cheenkachorn, K., Narasingha, M.H. and Pupakornnopparut, J. (2006). Biodiesel as an additive for diesohol, Asian Journal on Energy and Environment; vol. 70(01), pp. 267-276.

Beer, T., Grant, T., Morgan, G., Lapszewicz, J., Anyon, P., Edwards, J., Nelson, P., Watson, H. and Williams, D. (2007).Final Report(EV45A/2/F3C)to the Australian Greenhouse Office on the stage2study of life-cycle emissions analysis of alternative fuels for heavy vehicles.แหล่งที่มาhttp://www.globalbioenergy.org/uploads/media/06_Australian_Greenhouse_Office_-_Comparison_of_Transport_Fuels.pdf

Kwanchareon, P., Luengnaruemitchai, A. and Jai-In, S. Solubility of a Diesel-Biodiesel-Ethanol Blend, Its Fuel Properties, and Its Emission Characteristics from Diesel Engine. Fuel, 2007; 86: 1053-1061.

Chotwichien, A., Luengnaruemitchai, A. and Jai-In, S. Utilization of Palm Oil Alkyl Esters as an Additive in Ethanol-Diesel and Butanol-Diesel Blends. Fuel,2009; 88: 1618-1624.

การศึกษาและทดสอบสัดส่วนการผสมน้ำมันดีโซฮอล์ที่เหมาะสม. สัมมนาสรุปผลการศึกษาโดยศูนย์เทคโนโลยีโลหะและวัสดุแห่งชาติ,มิถุนายน 22, โรงแรมแมนดาริน จังหวัดกรุงเทพมหานคร, 2561.

ศุภกิจ เอียดตรง.การผลิตส่วนผสมดีเซลจากน้ำมันปาล์มดิบหีบรวมด้วยกระบวนการไฮโดรไลซิสแบบ ต่อเนื่อง. วิทยานิพนธ์วิศวกรรมศาสตรมหาบัณฑิต, สาขาวิชาวิศวกรรมเครื่องกล มหาวิทยาลัยสงขลานครินทร์, 2559.

ศุภกิจ เอียดตรง, สมเกียรติ ลักษณะกะชา,ศิวกร เพ็ชรรัตนมุณี, กิตตินันท์ มลิวรรณ และธีระยุทธ หลีวิจิตร. การศึกษาความเป็นไปได้ของการผลิตเชื้อเพลิงเหลว ดีเซล-ส่วนกลั่นกรดไขปาล์ม-เอทานอล. การประชุมวิชาการเครือข่ายวิศวกรรมเครื่องกลแห่งประเทศไทย ครั้งที่ 30, กรกฎาคม 5-8, โรงแรม บีพี สมิหลา บีช โฮเต็ล แอนด์ รีสอร์ท จังหวัดสงขลา, 2559.

ศุภกิจ เอียดตรง, ณิชกานต์ หมัดหมาน, เรวัต์ ทองขจร, กิตตนันท์ มลิวรรณ และ ธีระยุทธ หลีวิจิตร. การศึกษาความเป็นไปได้ของการผลิตเชื้อเพลิงเหลว ดีเซล-น้ำมันปาล์มดิบหีบรวมลดยางเหนียว/ส่วนกลั่นกรดไขปาล์ม-บิวทานอล. การประชุมวิชาการเครือข่ายวิศวกรรมเครื่องกลแห่งประเทศไทย ครั้งที่ 30, กรกฎาคม 5-8, โรงแรม บีพี สมิหลา บีช โฮเต็ล แอนด์ รีสอร์ท จังหวัดสงขลา, 2559.

Eiadtrong, S., Maliwan, K., Prateepchaikul, G., Kattiyawan, T., Thephsorn, P. and Leevijit, T. Preparation, Important Fuel Properties, and Comparative Use of Un-Preheated Palm Fatty Acid Distillate-Diesel Blends in a Single Cylinder Diesel Engine. Renewable Energy,2019;134: 1089-1098.

Eiadtrong, S., Maliwan, K., Thepaya, T., Kattiyawan T., Prateepchaikul, G. and Leevijit, T. An Investigation to Utilize Ternary Diesel-Palm Fatty Acid Distillate-10 Wt.% N-Butanol Blends as Simply Novel Diesel Substitute. Fuel,2021;289: 119965.

Eiadtrong, S., Leevijit, T., Srewaradachpisal, S., Maliwan, K., Theppaya, T. and Prateepchaikul, G. (2017). Phase behavior and important fuel properties of diesel-palm fatty acid distillate-anhydrous ethanol blends, paper presented in the 8thThai Society of Mechanical Engineers, International Conference on Mechanical Engineering, Bangkok, Thailand.

Eiadtrong, S., Maliwan1, K., Theppaya, T., Kattiyawan, T., Tepsorn, K., Piamcharoensuk, S. and Leevijit, T. Preliminary Utilizing the Blends of Diesel-PFAD-Anhydrous/Hydrous Alcohols in an Agricultural Diesel Engine, The 9th Thai Society of Mechanical Engineers, International Conference on Mechanical Engineering, December 11-14, Phuket, Thailand, 2018.

สำนักงานนโยบายและแผนพลังงาน กระทรวงพลังงาน. [ระบบออนไลน์] แหล่งที่มา: http://www.eppo.go.th /index.php/th/petroleum/price/structure-oil-price?limitstart=0

กรมการค้าภายใน กระทรวงพาณิชย์. [ระบบออนไลน์] แหล่งที่มา: https://agri.dit.go.th/index.php/department _doc/3/ปาล์มน้ำมัน/28[25]บริษัท Hainan Zhongxin Chemical จำกัด. [ระบบออนไลน์] แหล่งที่มา: https://zxchem.lookchem.com/products/CasNo-27247-96-7-2-Ethylhexyl-nitrate-2254173.html

Alptekin, E. Emission, Injection and Combustion Characteristics of Biodiesel and Oxygenated Fuel Blends in a Common Rail Diesel Engine. Energy,2017;119: 44-52.

Atmanli, A. Comparative Analyses of Diesel–Waste Oil Biodiesel and Propanol, N-Butanol or 1-Pentanol Blends in a Diesel Engine. Fuel,2016;176: 209-215.

Atmanlı, A., Ileri, E. and Yüksel, B. Experimental Investigation of Engine Performance and Exhaust Emissions of a Diesel Engine Fueled with Diesel–n-Butanol–Vegetable Oil Blends. Energy Conversion and Management,2014;81: 312-321.

Chen, Z., Liu, J., Han, Z., Du, B., Liu, Y. and Lee, C. Study on Performance and Emissions of a Passenger-Car Diesel Engine Fueled with Butanol-Diesel Blends. Energy,2013;55: 638-646.

Damodharan, D., Sathiyagnanam, A.P., Rana, D., Rajesh Kumar, B. and Saravanan, S. Extraction and Characterization of Waste Plastic Oil (WPO) with the Effect of N-Butanol Addition on the Performance and Emissions of a DI Diesel Engine Fueled with WPO/Diesel Blends. Energy Conversion and Management,2017;131: 117-126.

Huang, J., Wanga, Y., Li, S., Roskilly, A.P., Yu, H. and Li, H. Experimental Investigation on the Performance and Emissions of a Diesel Engine Fuelled with Ethanol–Diesel Blends. Applied Thermal Engineering,2009;29: 2484-2490.

Ileri, E. Experimental Study of 2-Ethylhexyl Nitrate Effects on Engine Performance and Exhaust Emissions of a Diesel Engine Fueled with N-Butanol or 1-Pentanol Diesel–Sunflower Oil Blends. Energy Conversion and Management,2016;118: 320-330.

Imdadu, H.K., Masjuki, H.H., Kalam, M.A., Zulkifli, N.W.M., Alabdulkarem, A. and Rashed, M.M. Influences of Ignition Improver Additive on Ternary (Diesel-Biodiesel-Higher Alcohol) Blends Thermal Stability and Diesel Engine Performance. Energy Conversion and Management,2016;123: 252-264.

Imtenan, S., Masjuki, H.H., Varman, M., Rizwanul Fattah, I.M., Sajjad, H. and Arbab, M.I. Effect of n-butanol and Diethyl Ether as Oxygenated Additives on Combustion–Emission-Performance Characteristics of a Multiple Cylinder Diesel Engine Fuelled with Diesel–Jatropha Biodiesel Blend. Energy Conversion and Management,2015;94: 84-94.

Krishna, S.M., Salama, P.A., Tongroonb, M. and Chollacoopb, N. Performance and Emission Assessment of Optimally Blended Biodiesel-Diesel-Ethanol in Diesel Engine Generator. Applied Thermal Engineering,2019;155: 525-533.

Lujaji, F., Kristof, L., Bereczky, A. and Mbarawa, M. Experimental Investigation of Fuel Properties, Engine Performance, Combustion and Emissions of Blends Containing Croton Oil, Butanol and Diesel on a CI Engine. Fuel,2011;90: 505–510.

Prabakaran, B. and Udhoji, A. Experimental Investigation into Effects of Addition of Zinc Oxide on Performance, Combustion and Emission Characteristics of Diesel-Biodiesel-Ethanol Blends in CI Engine. Alexandria Engineering Journal,2016;55: 3355-3362.

Qi, D.H., Yang, K., Zhang, D. and Chen, B. Combustion and Emission Characteristics of Diesel-Tung Oil-Ethanol Blended Fuels Used in a CRDI Diesel Engine with Different Injection Strategies. Applied Thermal Engineering,2017;111: 927-935.

Sathiyamoorthi, R. and Sankaranarayanan, G. The Effects of Using Ethanol as Additive on the Combustion and Emissions of a Direct Injection Diesel Engine Fuelled with Neat Lemongrass Oil-Diesel Fuel Blend. Renewable Energy,2017;101: 747-756.

Sharon, H., Jai Shiva Ram, P., Jenis Fernando, K., Murali, S. and Muthusamy, R. Fueling a Stationary Direct Injection Diesel Engine with Diesel-Used Palm Oil–Butanol Blends –An Experimental Study. Energy Conversion and Management,2013;73: 95-105.

Ibrahim, A. Performance and Combustion Characteristics of a Diesel Engine Fueled by Butanol–Biodiesel–Diesel Blends. Applied Thermal Engineering,2016;103: 651-659.

Krishna, S.M., Salama, P.A., Tongroonb, M. and Chollacoopb, N. Performance and Emission Assessment of Optimally Blended Biodiesel-Diesel-Ethanol in Diesel Engine Generator. Applied Thermal Engineering,2019;155: 525-533.

Venu, H. and Madhavan, V. Influence of Diethyl Ether (DEE) Addition in Ethanol-Biodiesel-Diesel (EBD) and Methanol-Biodiesel-Diesel (MBD) Blends in a Diesel Engine. Fuel, 2017;189: 377-390.

Rakopoulos, D.C., Rakopoulos, C.D., Giakoumis, E.G., Papagiannakis R.G. and Kyritsis, D.C. Influence of Properties of Various Common Bio-Fuels on the Combustion and Emission Characteristics of High-Speed DI (Direct Injection) Diesel Engine: Vegetable Oil, Bio-Diesel, Ethanol, N-Butanol, Diethyl Ether. Energy, 2014;73: 354-366.

Pushparaj, T. and Ramabalan, S. Green Fuel Design for Diesel Engine, Combustion, Performance and Emission Analysis. Procedia Engineering, 2013;64: 701–709.

Published

2021-04-30

Issue

Section

Research Articles