Naresuan University Engineering Journal <p><strong>Indexed in </strong></p> <p><strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><span style="font-weight: bolder; color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.84);"><img src="" /></span></a></strong></p> <div id="focusAndScope"> <p><strong><u>Aim and Scope</u></strong></p> <p> The primary objective of the Naresuan University Engineering Journal (NUEJ) is to publish high-quality research articles presenting contemporary developments in theory, design, and applications in all areas of Engineering, Science, and Technology, including research in Civil, Environmental, Mechanical, Electrical, Computer, Industrial, Chemical, and Material Engineerings. NUEJ covers all multidisciplinary research in associated areas, such as Mechatronics, Energy, Industrial and Engineering Design, Manufacturing Technology, Engineering Management, and Medical Engineering.</p> <p><strong><u>Journal Policies</u></strong></p> <p><strong> </strong><em>Naresuan University Engineering Journal (NUEJ)</em> uses a double-blind peer review system and it regularly publishes two issues per year (January – June and July – December). Any submitted manuscripts must be original, unpublished, and not currently under review by other journals. NUEJ aims to consider only the submitted works which respect to research ethics, including confidentiality, consent, and the special requirements for human and animal researches. All research articles dealing with human or animal subjects must attach an approval certificate from the Ethic Committee. Additionally, the research article dealing with human subjects must provide evidence of informed consent.</p> <p>Editorial board of NUEJ reserves the right to decide whether the submitted manuscript should be accepted for publication. The final decision of the editorial board cannot be appealed.</p> <p>The submitted manuscript has to be written in English only, and can be in Microsoft Word (doc or docx) or PDF file format. The corresponding author is required to register and submit the manuscript at <a href=""></a></p> <p> </p> <p>ISSN : 2651-1568 (Online)</p> <p> </p> </div> <h3>Sponsor</h3> <ul> <li class="show"><a href="">Faculty of Engineering, Naresuan University</a></li> </ul> <p> </p> en-US (ASST. PROF. DR. ANANCHAI U-KAEW) (Nutchanart Kaeodaeng) Sat, 30 Dec 2023 15:13:09 +0700 OJS 60 Low Frequency Planar Wireless Power Transfer with Impedance Matching using L-Section Matching Network for Underwater EVs <p>For the Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) system, the impedance Matching (IM) is the technique in which a wide range of resonant and strong coupling structures have been studied which mostly operate at an ideal parameter, i.e., resistive load and high RF greater than1MHz, however these parameters have some limitations in which the most important is that the high frequency is usually inefficient and complex load. This paper presents an L-section matching network to find the ideal load and source conditions. Thus, under the normal load and source conditions, we estimate the maximum power transfer efficiency and describe how to configure the matching network for the given load and source conditions for low-frequency WPT system. The L-section matching network to connect to a WPT structure using air-core spiral coils. The following configuration of network can operate at a low frequency of 20 kHz. From the calculation the moderate efficiency is 67 % while the efficiency from the experiment is 60 % at 9-cm transfer distance without an ideal parameter. The applications of the proposed work are suitable for underwater electric vehicles. Since the eddy current loss of seawater is critical when the operating frequency is higher than 250 kHz.</p> Assoc.Prof.Dr.Wanchai Pijitrojana Copyright (c) 2023 Sat, 30 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0700 A Genetic Algorithm-Based Reversible Data Hiding Approach for Enhancing QR Code Security <p>The problems concerning efficient RDH algorithms are often complex and involve a combination of several methods. Embedding capacity and each image require different optimum parameters. This paper presents an investigation of the parameters for the reversible data hiding algorithm for QR code images. One tool was used for finding those optimal parameters. The genetic algorithm was applied to find the weighting value and level of Expanded Variance Mean sorting that provides the lowest possible distortion for each image and each embedding capacity. Using pixel sorting before embedding is essential for modern RDH algorithms to reduce the location map size, thus allowing more information to be embedded with less distortion. The path of the threshold values of the QR code image (close to 0 and 255) was also checked to ensure the best embedding interval. The performance test for the proposed method used six QR code images (Image with the smallest and least variance to image with the largest and most variance), and the hidden bits were random. The experimental results of the proposed method show that the peak signal-to-noise ratio values are superior compared to the previous two works, averaging about 2 dB compared to LV+EMSW and 0.5 dB compared to EVM+EMSW. In the future, it should be possible to explore multi-bit embedding schemes for smooth areas that enable more embedding and still have low distortion.</p> chaiyaporn panyindee Copyright (c) 2023 Sat, 30 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0700 Real-Time Root Cause Analysis of Governor Control System for Sirikit Hydropower <p class="abstract"><span style="color: black; font-weight: normal;">The existing governor control system of Sirikit Hydropower is designed as a standalone system. It communicates to another system such as the distributed control system (DCS), protection system, and excitation system by hardwiring. Some abnormal events are the group alarms that cause the operator and maintenance team to spend more time on problem-solving. This paper studies real-time root cause analysis of the governor control system for Sirikit Hydropower. This real-time root cause can improve operator and maintenance team performance, especially in case of emergency and ready-to-start events. The real-time root cause analysis system knowledge is based on input/output real-time data of the governor system and DCS, maintenance instruction manual, history events, and drawing of the governor control system. The root cause analysis in this research is a fault tree logic analysis technique for diagnosing alarms and emergency events. Developing a graphical user interface is a real-time troubleshooting guide monitor with user-friendly. This system can help the operator and maintenance team to solve problems of the governor control system more effectively.</span></p> Uthai Kumthai , Suttichai Premrudeepreechacharn Copyright (c) 2023 Sat, 30 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0700 Study of Unbalanced Voltage on Rotor Classes of Induction Motor According to NEMA Standard <p>This investigation studies core loss and thermal distributions. There are four types of 3-phase induction motors that meet the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) standard when receiving unbalanced voltage by testing the motor under unbalanced voltage conditions. The conditions are different. The model analysis method was used in conjunction with the Finite Element Method (FEM) as well as experimental and computational theory. To analyze the change in magnetic flux density and the resulting temperature. Along with finding a conclusion on the effect on the motor when the voltage is unbalanced.</p> kreangsuk kraikitrat, Duanraem Phaengkieo, Sompron Ruangsinchaiwanich Copyright (c) 2023 Sat, 30 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0700 Modeling Molecular Structural Properties of Magnetite (Fe3O4) and Mackinawite (FeS) Using Density Functional Theory (DFT) <p>Bare and sulfidized nanoscale zerovalent iron (bare NZVI or Fe<sup>0 </sup>and S-NZVI, respectively) has been widely utilized for environmental restoration. During the degradation and sequestration of contaminants of concern (COCs) such as chlorinated organics and toxic metals, interfacial detoxification reactions are governed by the physical chemistry of the iron oxide shell of bare NZVI and the iron sulfide shell of S-NZVI: magnetite (Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub>) and mackinawite (FeS), respectively. Because interfacial reactions generally cannot be directly and experimentally monitored, this study examines first-principles methods based on the use of the density functional theory (DFT) as a simulation tool to help understand interfacial phenomena. In this study, DFT approaches with and without long-range van der Waals interactions (so-called DFT and DFT-D2 approaches, respectively) were employed. The simulated unit cell parameters and electronic density of states (DOS) of bulk Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub> and FeS were modeled using both DFT and DFT-D2 methods and compared with previous experimental results where these were available. We reveal that there was strong agreement between the simulated properties and previous experimental results. Nevertheless, for both Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub> and FeS, the DFT-D2 method performed better than the DFT method in terms of the accuracy of simulated unit cell parameters. Furthermore, the DFT-D2 method simulated the DOS of both materials effectively. The DOS of Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub> supports electron transfer from the central octahedral-Fe<sub>B </sub>layer to the outer tetrahedral-Fe<sub>A </sub>layer, while the DOS of FeS potentially explains the decrease of the NZVI aging effect and enhanced treatment for hydrophobic contaminants due to sulfidation reported in literature. This research projects that DFT-D2 can be used as a tool of choice for understanding the interaction between COCs and Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub> and FeS surfaces at nanoscale in order to develop the environmental applications of nanomaterials. For this purpose, further modification of the model is required to properly downscale the computation from bulk to nanoscale materials</p> Saranya Tongkamnoi, Mayuree Phonyiem Reilly, Tanapon Phenrat Copyright (c) 2023 Sat, 30 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0700 Design and Commissioning of Continuously Stirred Anaerobic Bioreactor for Upcycling Carbon Dioxide (CO2) to Methane (CH4) via Methanogenesis <p>Carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology, especially geological storage in depleted oil and gas fields, is essential to achieving the goal of carbon net zero by 2050. Some depleted oil and gas fields contain anaerobic microbes, including methanogens that can transform CO<sub>2</sub> and hydrogen (H<sub>2</sub>) to methane (CH<sub>4</sub>), which can be extracted and used as a fuel. Thus, subsurface microbiological transformation via methanogens may be key to achieving the large-scale utilization of CO<sub>2</sub>. While this concept is exciting and has great potential to promote a circular economy with regard to CO<sub>2</sub> and simultaneously achieve carbon neutrality, extensive research is needed to understand and to maximize methanogen performance. This research preliminary evaluates biogenic gas potential in a neighboring country. Chemical is evaluated. From chemical point of view, the analysis of δ<sup>13</sup>C<sub>CH4</sub> values of the biogenic gas samples from in a neighboring country reveals that the methanogenic pathway is probably dominated by biogenic carbonate reduction. Here, we reveal a design for an automated bioreactor capable of simulating deep subsurface conditions to culture strictly anaerobic methanogens obtained from a gas field in a neighboring country. To simulate deep subsurface conditions, the bioreactor contains a mixture of sediment and anaerobic microbes at an inner pressure of 8 bar and a temperature of 37°C. It has a controlled CO<sub>2</sub> and H<sub>2 </sub>feeding system with real-time monitoring of pH, oxidation reduction potential, conductivity, and the transformation of CO<sub>2</sub> and H<sub>2</sub> to CH<sub>4</sub>. Even without any optimization, methanogens in this reactor can transform H<sub>2</sub> and CO<sub>2 </sub>to CH<sub>4</sub> at a conversion rate of 0.87 to 77.46% of theoretical yield, confirming the survival of active methanogens. This novel reactor facilitates the experimental study of anaerobic methanogenesis in deep subsurface conditions, which is very technically challenging and, to the best of our knowledge, has not previously been performed in Thailand</p> Kusuma Rintachai, Tanapon Phenrat, Siriwan Wichai , Apinun Limmongkon, Nusara Yinyom Copyright (c) 2023 Sat, 30 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0700 Experimental investigation on granular fodder flow characteristics during discharge period in silo <p class="text" style="text-indent: 14.2pt;">The purpose of this study is to conduct an experimental investigation on granular fodder flow characteristics during discharge period in silos. The pressure on the silo wall and the mass flow rate of pellets feed stored in the silo for 1 hour were determined with the laboratory-scale steel and fiberglass silos. Additionally, the parametric study of four angles of a 55 mm diameter outlet conical hopper such as 10, 20, 30, and 45 degrees were done in this testing. From the results, the average wall pressure of the steel silo in the discharge period was more than that of the fiberglass silo. Both silos presented the minimum and maximum mass flow rate occurring on a hopper angle of 45 degrees and 10 degrees, respectively. When considering experimental results of the wall pressure and the average mass flow rate, it could be concluded that the flow patterns of granular fodder during discharge period in both steel and fiberglass silos were funnel flow patterns.</p> Kwanchai Kraitong Copyright (c) 2023 Sat, 30 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0700 New Classification of Textile Samples through lp Norm Spectral Enhancement Using Template Filters Combining the Analytic Geometry Technique <p>This paper introduces a novel method for classifying textile fibers into three groups: natural fibers, synthetic fibers, and blended fibers using near-infrared (NIR) spectra obtained via the NeoSpectra-Micro sensor. Our approach involves preprocessing and employing the <em>l</em><sub>p</sub>-norm with p = ∞, 1, and 2 to enhance spectral signals. These enhanced signals alongside textile template filters were obtained from both natural and synthetic fiber groups. Next, the template filters are used to construct a new 2x1 feature vector through covariance-based techniques to effectively reduce spectral data dimension. The feature vector is pivotal for establishing two threshold lines together with an analytical geometry technique to classify for accurate fiber groups. To evaluate the performance of the proposed method, experiments were conducted by using three groups of fiber samples: 210 natural fiber spectra, 480 synthetic fiber spectra, and 270 blended fiber spectra. The dataset was divided into training and testing sets with ten random iterations exploring eight ratios and <em>l</em><sub>p</sub>-norm enhancements for training and evaluation. Remarkably, the experimental result has shown that the overall accuracy remains consistent across the three cases of the <em>l</em><sub>p</sub>-norm enhancements providing the similar accuracies. Considering the limited computational resource, the <em>l</em><sub>1</sub>-norm emerges as a practical choice for embedded systems, emphasizing its practicality for implementation. Moreover, the proposed method additionally provides high accuracies (mean ± standard deviation) of 0.9995 ± 0.0006, 0.9999 ± 0.0004, and 0.9999 ± 0.0005, whereas the ratio of the train and test data is equal to three cases: 10:90, 20:80 and 30:70, respectively, and achieves an exceptional overall accuracy of 100%, whereas the ratio of the train and test data is equal to five cases: 40:60, 50:50, 60:40, 70:30 and 80:20.</p> Suchart Yammen, Wachira Limsripraphan Copyright (c) 2023 Sat, 30 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0700