Engineering and Technology Horizons 2024-06-24T00:00:00+07:00 Prof. Dr. Uma Seeboonruang Open Journal Systems <p><em>Engineering and Technology Horizons</em> (ETH), formerly known as Ladkrabang Engineering Journal, is an academic refereed journal organized by the School of Engineering, King Mongkut's Institute of Technology Ladkrabang (KMITL) in Thailand. ETH is an open-access scientific journal that focuses explicitly on publishing original academic and research articles related to engineering and technology. The journal provides a platform for researchers, scientists, and academicians to share their knowledge and ideas with the broader scientific community through online publications.</p> <p><strong>Journal Abbreviation: </strong>Eng. &amp; Technol. Horiz.</p> <p><strong>ISSN: </strong>2985-1688 (Online)</p> <p><strong>Starting Year: </strong>1983</p> <p><strong>Language: </strong>English and Thai</p> <p>Effective June 1, 2024, all submissions made to the journal must be exclusively written in English.</p> <h3><strong>Aims</strong></h3> <p>Engineering and Technology Horizons strives to advance the field of engineering and technology through theoretical and practical approaches. The journal's aims include:</p> <ul> <li>To publish high-quality articles on engineering and technology, both nationally and internationally.</li> <li>To serve as a platform for exchanging research results and knowledge in engineering and technology among students, researchers, and teachers.</li> <li>To become a repository of valuable academic research articles in engineering and technology.</li> </ul> <h3><strong>Scope of the Journal</strong></h3> <p>Articles that are suitable for publication should be related to the field of engineering and technology. This includes research reports the author has experimented with, created, or directly participated in. The published article should present a new idea or principle that is supported by adequate theoretical evidence. It should also be an interesting and useful academic article for students and researchers. It is essential to note that the authors must have played a direct role in or organized the majority of the article. The journal covers the fields of engineering and technology as follows:</p> <ul> <li>Civil engineering, environmental engineering, and engineering related to architecture</li> <li>Electrical engineering, electronic engineering, and computer engineering</li> <li>Chemical engineering and petroleum engineering</li> <li>Agricultural engineering and food engineering</li> <li>Industrial engineering, management engineering, and production engineering</li> <li>Telecommunication engineering and information engineering</li> <li>Mechanical engineering, rail engineering, and mechatronic engineering</li> <li>Measurement and control engineering</li> <li>Biomedical engineering.</li> </ul> <h3><strong>Type of Article</strong></h3> <p>ETH accepts two types of articles: research and academic articles.</p> <ul> <li><strong>Research article: </strong>A research article is a document with a form of research according to academic principles; for example, there is a hypothesis or a reasonably identified problem. In addition, it must clearly state objectives, systematic research, collect data for consideration, analysis, interpretation, and conclusion of research that can provide answers to certain objectives or principles that will lead to academic advancement or practical application.</li> <li><strong>Academic article:</strong> An academic article is written in the manner of analyzing, criticizing, or proposing new ideas from an academic basis that has been compiled from the academic work of one's own or that of others, or an academic article written for general knowledge for the public.</li> </ul> <p>Manuscripts submitted to the journal must not have been previously published or under consideration elsewhere. Researchers must follow the highest standards of scientific integrity while submitting manuscripts, ensuring that their research is ethical and rigorous. Manuscripts presenting innovative and original research and contributing to developing new theories, methodologies, and techniques are encouraged.</p> <h3><strong>Language</strong></h3> <p>All submissions must be in clear and concise English with proper grammar and correct spelling.</p> <h3><strong>Peer Review</strong></h3> <p>The articles will undergo a double-blind review process by at least three experts. This ensures that the reviewers' comments are academically sound and their recommendations are helpful to the authors.</p> <h3><strong>Publication Frequency</strong></h3> <p>The journal is published every three months, with four issues per year. </p> <ul> <li><strong>Issue 1:</strong> January - March</li> <li><strong>Issue 2:</strong> April - June</li> <li><strong>Issue 3:</strong> July - September</li> <li><strong>Issue 4:</strong> October - December</li> </ul> <h3><strong>Publication fee</strong></h3> <p>Publication is free of charge as all costs are covered by the School of Engineering, King Mongkut's Institute of Technology Ladkrabang.</p> <p> </p> <h2>Policy</h2> <h3><strong>Editorial Policy </strong></h3> <p>Independent reviewers will evaluate academic and research articles for publication. The articles must include substantial supported theories, innovative work, substantial experimental results, useful and constructive discussions, and academic articles in the fields of engineering and technology. An electronic journal is available on the website (<a href=""></a>). The Editors have the right to request revisions to the submitted manuscript before it is finally accepted. The institute and the editorial board do not take responsibility for the views or content expressed by the authors of individual articles. Acknowledgment is required for any copying.</p> <h3><strong>Open Access and Archiving Policies</strong></h3> <p>This journal promotes the global exchange of ideas and knowledge by providing open access to its research content.</p> <p>The Engineering and Technology Horizons journal's articles are available on Thailand's central electronic journal database, Thai Journal Online (ThaiJO). You can access all the published articles for free from the archives section on their website (<a href=""></a>). The authors hold the copyright of their articles, and they are permitted to self-archive their articles in PDF format.</p> <h3><strong>Publication Fee Policy</strong></h3> <p>The Engineering and Technology Horizons journal is an open access publication founded by the School of Engineering, King Mongkut's Institute of Technology Ladkrabang in Thailand. Its purpose is to publish high-quality academic and research articles on engineering and technology. The journal is open to anyone whose research work meets the editorial board's criteria, and there are no page charges for submissions. The School of Engineering fully covers the cost of publication.</p> <h3><strong>Peer-reviewed Policy</strong></h3> <p>Manuscripts submitted to Engineering and Technology Horizons undergo editorial and peer review. Editors assess whether a manuscript is technically sound and scientifically valid before sending it for double-blind peer review. Authors can suggest peer reviewers in the ETH article <a href="">submission form</a>, but the Editor's decision is final. Authors should not recommend recent collaborators or colleagues from the same institution. If an Editor has competing interests, another member will oversee peer review. Authors should include copies of related papers with their submission.</p> <p> </p> <h2>Management</h2> <h3><strong>Ownership</strong></h3> <p>The School of Engineering at KMITL is the rightful owner of the Engineering and Technology Horizons journal. The school provides all necessary facilities to ensure the journal maintains its high publication standards, rigorous peer-review process, and open-access availability to researchers and readers worldwide. The Office of Academic Journal Administration, under the President's Office, has been assigned to oversee the overall management of the journal, in line with the School of Engineering's vision. For further information about the School of Engineering, KMITL, please visit <a href=""></a>.</p> <h3><strong>Copyright and Licensing</strong></h3> <p>Engineering and Technology Horizons values copyright protection and licensing to secure the author’s rights. We publish articles under a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY), which allows sharing, adaptation, and proper attribution, while authors retain copyright ownership. This fosters openness, accessibility, and responsible sharing, benefiting authors and the research community while honoring intellectual property rights.</p> <h3><strong>Revenue Source</strong></h3> <p>The School of Engineering at KMITL is the primary revenue source for the journal, which is utilized to sustain its operations and ensure transparency. Any revenue sources for the journal do not influence editorial decisions. Manuscripts submitted for publication are evaluated solely on their scientific merit. Throughout the submission and publication process, we maintain transparency and high publication standards.</p> <h3><strong>Advertising and Direct Marketing</strong></h3> <p>Our advertising policy is transparent and ethical. Advertisements, if any, are displayed separately from published content, and decisions regarding advertising are made based on relevance and quality. We prioritize professionalism, ethics, and the separation of advertising from scientific content to uphold editorial independence and article integrity. Additionally, we approach direct marketing activities cautiously to maintain ethical standards, prioritize transparency, obtain consent, and respect data privacy regulations.</p> <p><strong>Engineering and Technology Horizons (ETH)<br />Research and Innovation, Academic Support Section</strong><strong><br />Dean's Office, 2nd Floor 6-storey building<br />School of Engineering, King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang</strong><br />No. 1, Chalong Krung 1, Chalong Krung Road, Lat Krabang Sub-district,<br />Lat Krabang District, Bangkok, 10520, Thailand<br />Tel/Fax: 02-329-8301 Ext. 249, E-mail:</p> Improving Maintenance Operations on Raw Material Conveying Equipment by Using TRIZ Technique 2024-02-12T11:24:54+07:00 Pawarit Siriwattanamethanon Ruephuwan Chantrasa <p>The objective of this research is to improve equipment used for conveying raw material in the construction material industry and establish standard procedures for maintenance by applying Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ). Research methodology consists of 1) studying the maintenance system of raw material conveying equipment of the case study company 2) collecting data and prioritizing problems using a Pareto chart, 3) setting goals, 4) analyzing the causes of the problems with Why-Why analysis and 3 GEN techniques, 5) concluding the results. Results from the study in 2022 showed that problem occurred at sieves and vibrator base used for filtering raw materials resulting in a high maintenance frequency of 28 times. The causes of the problem are the improper shape of the sieves and the installation position of the sieve vibrator including the carelessness of the worker to turn off the vibrator. This research solved the problems by applying TRIZ as guidelines for designing new sieves and applying Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) in establishing standard procedures for maintenance. The results of the improvement during May-November 2023 showed that the frequency of sieves maintenance decreased to 3 times equivalent to 6 times per year approximately, achieving the goal of less than 14 times/year. The MTBF increased from the original 171.67 hours to 1,055.91 hours and the MTTR decreased from 3.04 hours to 2.55 hours. It can be concluded that TRIZ can be applied to improve the material conveying equipment by significantly reducing the maintenance frequency.</p> 2024-06-24T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2024 School of Engineering, King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang Comparative Study on Flexural Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Beams Cast by Using Hydraulic Cement and Ordinary Portland Cement 2024-02-07T14:55:33+07:00 Chanchai Ngohpok Jaksada Thumrongvut Namchai Joysoongnern Cherdsak Suksiripattanapong Sittichai Seangatith <p>This paper is a comparative study of the flexural behavior of reinforced concrete beams cast by using hydraulic cement and ordinary Portland cement for construction applications. The main variables used in this research comprise of type of cement, ultimate compressive strength of concretes, and curing time. Two different types of cement, including hydraulic cement and ordinary Portland cement, were used at three different ultimate compressive strengths of 18 MPa, 25 MPa, and 32 MPa with the curing times of 28 and 90 days. The beams' nominal span-to-depth ratio is 8.0. The results showed that the reinforced concrete beams cast by using hydraulic cement and ordinary Portland cement had similar flexural behavior and failure patterns. Both types of the reinforced concrete beams exhibit linear elastic behavior up to approximately 80–90% of their maximum applied load. Then, the behavior of the beams is nonlinear in that the deflection increased rapidly with a slight increase in the applied load until reaching their failure. In addition, based on the experimental results obtained from this study, it was found that the ACI design equations are acceptable for predicting the design strength of the reinforced concrete beams cast by using hydraulic cement and the hydraulic cement can be an equivalent substitute for ordinary Portland cement for the reinforced concrete beams used in this study. Therefore, this application of the hydraulic cement is not only the environmentally friendly practices, but also promoting low-carbon society as well.</p> 2024-06-24T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2024 School of Engineering, King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang Analyzing Factors Influencing the Development of Railway Freight Transportation Service through the Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process Technique 2024-03-07T08:49:43+07:00 Kumphol Wanglisakul Harutairat Jantakard Somkuan Sanguanpang Niwatchai Jaikham <p>The main objective of this study is to apply the Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP) technique to assess factors influencing the development of railway freight transportation services. These factors include four critical performance indicators within the supply chain: responsiveness, cost, reliability, and agility. Moreover, the study aims to develop guidelines for enhancing the effectiveness of railway freight transportation in Chiang Rai province, particularly through the Den Chai–Chiang Rai–Chiang Khong railway route. Data were collected from 9 experts, including logistics service providers, users, and academics then, pairwise comparisons of factors were conducted. The results revealed that the cost factor holds the highest significance at 33.86%, followed by reliability, responsiveness, and agility factors at 28.51%, 26.14%, and 11.49%, respectively. Consistent with satisfaction scores obtained from logistics service users, the cost factor holds the highest satisfaction score at 4.78, followed by reliability, responsiveness, and agility factors with scores of 4.41, 4.16, and 4.01, respectively. The result above will bring towards preparation in railway freight transportation of Chiang Rai province and encouraging entrepreneurs to shift to railway transportation mode in the end.</p> 2024-06-24T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2024 School of Engineering, King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang Factors Affecting User Satisfaction of Local Van (Songthaew): A Case Study of The Local Van (Songthaew) Route 1263 In Pattanakarn Road Soi 20, Bangkok 2024-02-07T12:42:04+07:00 Chaturaphak Wichian Jumrus Pitaksringkarn <p>The research aims to identify the factors affecting satisfaction and suggestions from users of local van (songthaew) route 1263. This will propose measures to manage the operations and improve level of satisfaction. The researcher has established a set of questionnaires for 400 random respondents and using Multiple Regression Analysis to determine the correlation between factors that affect satisfaction. Discover correlations between factors influencing satisfaction using Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient. It was found that factors affecting user satisfaction of local van (songthaew) route 1263 in Pattanakarn road soi 20 by the average satisfaction score of the factors that affect satisfaction (Y<sub>1</sub>) would be management (X<sub>1</sub>), physical aspects of vehicles (X<sub>2</sub>), service (X<sub>3</sub>), safety (X<sub>4</sub>) and environment (X<sub>5</sub>). The equation of predicting satisfaction is Y<sub>1</sub> = -2.164E-15 + 0.148 X<sub>1</sub> + 0.333 X<sub>2</sub> + 0.259 X<sub>3</sub> + 0.148 X<sub>4</sub> + 0.111X<sub>5</sub> The variables can predict the overall satisfaction (Y<sub>1</sub>) with adjusted R-Square all four factors have equivalent to 1.000 for accuracy (100.0%), the relationship between variables is equal to 1.000. The above equation shows the overall satisfaction across all with an average predictive value (Predicted Y<sub>1</sub>) of 3.28 (moderate satisfaction). There is a correlation (Pearson Correlation) among there five factors and their satisfaction in the order of the relationship as follow: service (r = 0.764), safety (r = 0.739), environment (r = 0.638), physical aspects of vehicles (r = 0.236) and management (r = 0.058) a significant relationship except for management. The top three additional suggestions from users are installation of GPS systems on the local van (songthaew) route 1263 for convenient passenger tracking (23.0%), decreasing the running time (15.5%), and repairing damaged seats (14.5%). Prioritizing the bus operations management and safety regulations must be established by relevant governmental agencies to promote customer satisfaction. Vehicle examinations must strictly adhere to substantial practices. Operators should receive training on safe driving and outstanding service to boost passenger confidence and service. User suggestions regarding the management are, for example, an appropriate schedule and bus operation punctuality. There should be collaboration between government agencies and the private sector in order to accommodate passengers on main public transportation while connecting with local ones. A public hearing among stakeholders from both the private and governmental sectors should be held in order to gain ideas for improvement, such as fare promotion. Customer satisfaction will be improved if the above measures, along with all other recommendations, are taken into serious consideration by the operator and government agencies.</p> 2024-06-24T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2024 School of Engineering, King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang Optimization of Brazing Parameters for 316L Stainless Steel with AgCuZn Filler Metal Under Argon Atmosphere 2024-01-29T14:02:33+07:00 Phoometh Sangrayub Orajit Jamesang Parinya Kaweegitbundit Pasuree Lumsakul Niwat Mookam <p class="abstract" style="text-indent: 0in;">This research studies the optimal parameters for brazing 316L stainless steel using AgCuZn as filler metal under an argon gas atmosphere. The brazing parameters included temperature, brazing time, and argon gas flow rate. The study employed Box-Behnken design for experimental design and desirability function as the optimization tool. Mechanical properties study included the measurements of shear force, microhardness, microstructure, and fracture of brazing joints through a scanning electron microscope (SEM) as well as the chemical composition using an energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). As a result, the temperature and the brazing time significantly affected the shear force of the brazed joint at a 95 percent confidence interval. The optimal condition of the study was 800°C of temperature and a 20-minutes brazing time which caused the maximum shear force at 5,909.1 N. The brazing joint strength was increased when the temperature and time of brazing were increased and reached the optimal point. Microstructure showed a formation of an Ag-rich phase, a Cu-rich equiaxed dendrite phase, and a eutectic Ag-rich phase, which completely combined as the network structure and evenly small fine grains. Moreover, the shear force of the brazed joint was decreased when the temperature and time of brazing exceeded the optimal point due to the grain growth of the interface layer.</p> 2024-06-24T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2024 School of Engineering, King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang Optimum Weight Parameter of Weight Centroid Method for Indoor Positioning in Environment with Different Path Loss Exponent and Multipath Fading Effect 2024-03-06T16:12:42+07:00 Pichaya Supanakoon Monchai Chamchoy <p class="abstract" style="text-indent: 0in;">This paper proposes optimum weight parameter of weight centroid method for indoor positioning in environment with different path loss exponent and multipath fading effect. The indoor environment is defined as square with each side 10 m long. There is a transmitter installed in the center of each side. The distance error model is applied to calculate the distances between the location coordinates of user and the location coordinates of transmitters in environment with different path loss exponent and multipath fading. The total 100 location coordinates of user are estimated by using weight centroid method, varying weight parameter in the range of 1 to 10. The optimum weight parameter is defined as the case where mean of distance error of all positions is the least. The optimum weight parameter for environment with different path loss exponent and multipath fading effect is illustrated. The results show that the optimum weight parameter changes slightly with the path loss exponent and tends to change with the standard deviation of the multipath fading effect divided into 3 periods. The first period tends to increase slowly, the second period tends to increase rapidly, and the third period tends to fluctuate up and down. Moreover, the size of the indoor environment has very little impact on the optimum weight parameter. These results make it possible to select optimum weight parameter for case with path loss exponent and standard deviation of multipath fading effect that match or are close to the channel of indoor environment.</p> 2024-06-24T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2024 School of Engineering, King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang Design and Control of Two-Serial-Link Piezoelectric Manipulator 2024-02-21T08:25:47+07:00 Krit Maieam Nyesunthi Apiwattanalunggarn <p class="abstract" style="text-indent: 0in;">This paper describes a methodology for modeling, system identification, and designing a controller of a two degrees-of-freedom manipulator made from piezoelectric material. A piezoelectric bimorph is composed of two piezoelectric ceramic plates bonded to a brass plate which is sandwiched between the piezoelectric plates. One piezoelectric bimorph is attached perpendicularly to the other bimorph to form the manipulator. The manipulator is modeled using the finite element method. A reduced order model of the manipulator is obtained through modal analysis. The reduced order model is used to design closed-loop feedback controllers based on the exact feedback linearization (1) to regulate a tip of the manipulator to a set point or (2) to make the tip to track a desired signal. The closed-loop control manipulator can accomplish the tasks with satisfied results.</p> 2024-06-24T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2024 School of Engineering, King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang Development of Differential Evolution Algorithm for Simple Assembly Line Balancing Problem Type 1 2024-03-12T11:01:08+07:00 Krit Chantarasamai Visit Junchuan Poontana Sresracoo <p>The Simple Assembly Line Balancing Problem Type 1 (SALBP-1) is a widely embraced method in the industry for its simplicity in organizing production processes and enhancing efficiency. Consequently, a Differential Evolution Algorithm (DDE) using a backward task sequence was developed in this study to assist in production process management by determining the optimal number of stations. The efficacy of this method was assessed by juxtaposing it with heuristic approaches, including Longest Operation Time (LOT), Most Following Tasks (MFT), Ranked Positional Weight (RPW), Shortest Operation Time (SOT), Fewest Following Tasks (FFT), Ant Colony Optimization (ACO), Differential Evolution (DE), and Immune Genetic Algorithm (IGA). The findings reveal that DDE outperforms LOT, MFT, RPW, SOT, and FFT in discovering superior solutions and consistently matches solutions achieved by ACO, DE, and IGA methods across all problems. Notably, the DDE method exhibits a shorter time frame for solution discovery.</p> 2024-06-24T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2024 School of Engineering, King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang Logistic Regression Analysis of Factors Affecting Robot Arm Movement Testing 2024-03-08T08:33:16+07:00 Nichanach Katemukda <p class="abstract" style="text-indent: 0in;"><span style="letter-spacing: -.3pt;">Currently, with the rapid growth of robots in the industrial and service sectors, the robotic arm product is in high demand, and manufacturers need to deliver it on time. The manufacturer has a new product called “robot arm”. The issue is a high failure rate at the test station called the robot arm movement test. The manufacturer focused on the test process in order to reduce any variance that may result in a failure rate, with the operator's performance being their primary interest. Since the first group was built and tested, totaling 233 units of the robot arm, the logistic regression was applied with three independent variables. There are operators, working shifts, and product models. The results indicate day or night shifts are not related to the test failing. The operator and product model are important factors in the test failing. The 1.5<span lang="TH">–</span>meter<span lang="TH">–</span>long model has a higher chance of passing the test than the 1–meter–long model by about 13.66 times and the 2–meter–long model by 25.25 times. Operator D is the best at performing the robotic arm test and has a better chance of passing than the other operators (2.07 times for Operator A, 6.53 times for Operator B, and 7.01 times for Operator C). The action is that the software test needs to be updated for the 1– and 2–meter–long models. Moreover, Operators B and C need to be retrained as a priority. Then the manufacturer needs to focus more on the assembly process for yield improvement.</span></p> 2024-06-24T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2024 School of Engineering, King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang Analysis and Design Approaches for the Transition Zone between Bridges and Embankments in Railway Tracks 2024-05-07T15:45:50+07:00 Wichain Sommanawat Surasak Niyompanitpattana <p class="abstract" style="text-indent: 0in;"><span style="letter-spacing: -.2pt;">This study presents an analysis of stability improvement methods for the transition zone between bridge structures and embankments in railway systems using the Finite Element Method (FEM) model. The study aims to provide guidelines for designing such transition zones. The three methods investigated are recommended by the International Union of Railways (UIC) standard 719R: 1. Société Nationale des Chemins de fer Français method (SNCF), 2. Magyar Államvasutak method (MAV), and 3. Deutsche Bahn method (DB). Initially, the interaction between the rail and bridge models was calibrated using the E1-3 case from the UIC 774-3, which yielded results close to the reference values. Additionally, it was found that analyzing the sequence of applied loads provides better results than directly combining the responses from each load type. Subsequently, the study examined the stability improvement of the transition zones using the rail properties from the UIC 54 and the load standards from U20, which are applicable in Thailand. The analysis revealed that all three methods effectively reduced settlement in the transition zone, with the DB method achieving the highest reduction at 36.18%, and the SNCF and MAV methods achieving an equal reduction of 32.89%. However, considering both settlement reduction and construction techniques, the SNCF method is recommended as the most suitable approach for the design and construction to improve the stability of transition zones.</span></p> 2024-06-24T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2024 School of Engineering, King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang