Main Article Content
The use of agricultural biomass as raw material for activated carbon production has been increasing because it is cheap and largely generated amount. The produced activated carbon was useful for remove the pollutants from aqueous media. This work aims to study the effects of temperature and time on the activated carbon production from coconut coir obtained from Chonburi province. The experiments were divided into two stages: (i) biochar production and (ii) activated carbon production. The results revealed that both temperature and operation time had the significant effects on solid yield and surface area of Biochar. After that, the biochar obtained from different conditions were activated by using 4M KOH, 4M H3PO4 and 4M H2SO4 at the desired temperatures and operating time to produce activated carbon. The results showed that biochar which was produced at 500 oC and 1 h, then activated by KOH at 200 oC and 2 h provided the activated carbons with the highest surface area of 1,147.74 m2/g. In addition, the Methylene Blue adsorption was found to follow the Langmuir isotherm model (R2 = 0.9993).
The overall experimental results revealed that activated carbon produced from coconut coir could be operated under lower temperature and exhibited opportunity and possibility to design the cheap and uncomplicated kiln. The production energy can be reduced. Moreover, the production cost for activated carbon was presented that it was lower than that of commercial activated carbon. Therefore, it probably had an opportunity for commercial business competition or further development to new products for pollutant adsorption and other proposes.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Article Accepting Policy
The editorial board of Thai-Nichi Institute of Technology is pleased to receive articles from lecturers and experts in the fields of business administration, languages, engineering and technology written in Thai or English. The academic work submitted for publication must not be published in any other publication before and must not be under consideration of other journal submissions. Therefore, those interested in participating in the dissemination of work and knowledge can submit their article to the editorial board for further submission to the screening committee to consider publishing in the journal. The articles that can be published include solely research articles. Interested persons can prepare their articles by reviewing recommendations for article authors.
Copyright infringement is solely the responsibility of the author(s) of the article. Articles that have been published must be screened and reviewed for quality from qualified experts approved by the editorial board.
The text that appears within each article published in this research journal is a personal opinion of each author, nothing related to Thai-Nichi Institute of Technology, and other faculty members in the institution in any way. Responsibilities and accuracy for the content of each article are owned by each author. If there is any mistake, each author will be responsible for his/her own article(s).
The editorial board reserves the right not to bring any content, views or comments of articles in the Journal of Thai-Nichi Institute of Technology to publish before receiving permission from the authorized author(s) in writing. The published work is the copyright of the Journal of Thai-Nichi Institute of Technology.
Office of Agricultural Economics. “Mature coconut: Percentage and monthly yield including country, region and province in 2020.” OAE.go.th. https://www.oae.go.th/assets/portals/1/fileups/prcaidata/files/Coconut%20percent%2063.pdf (accessed Aug. 23, 2020)
S. Tatayanon, T. Piriyayotha, T. Boonyaem, and C. Osot, “Feasibility study on the simple production of activated carbon from biomass,” Forest Research and Development Bureau, Bangkok, Thailand, 2017. [Online]. Available: https://shorturl.asia/b3Jd0
Medthai. “Activated charcoal.” (in Thai), MEDTHAI.com. https://shorturl.asia/VWlpM (accessed Aug. 23, 2020)
J. Manaonok, S. Gonkhamdee, K. Dejbhimon, W. K. Polpinit, and D. Jothityangkoon, “Biochar: Its effect on soil properties and growth of wet-direct seeded rice (a pot trial),” (in Thai), Khon Kaen Agr. J., vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 209–220, 2017.
X. Tan et al., “Biochar as potential sustainable precursors for activated carbon production: Multiple applications in environmental protection and energy storage,” Bioresour. Technol., vol. 227, pp. 359–372, Mar. 2017.
M. Dwiyaniti et al., “Extremely high surface area of activated carbon originated from sugarcane bagasse,” in IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng., vol. 909, no. 1, 2020, pp. 1–8.
M. S. Reza et al., “Preparation of activated carbon from biomass and its’ applications in water and gas purification, a review,” Arab J. Basic Appl. Sci., vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 208–238, 2020.
Chulalongkorn University. “High quality smokeless charcoal briquettes and activated carbon products from agricultural waste by the learning and demonstration of solid fuel production center, Chulalongkorn University.” (in Thai), CHULA.ac.th. https://www.chula.ac.th/news/30933/ (accessed Aug. 23, 2020)
M. F. Nazzal, S. T. Ali, and I. A. Abdulwahab, “Removal of methylene blue dye from wastewater using activated carbon: A review,” Solid State Technol., vol. 63, no. 3, pp. 4290–4296, 2020.
S. Karagoz, T. Tay, S. Ucar, and M. Erdem, “Activated carbons from waste biomass by sulfuric acid activation and their use on methylene blue adsorption,” Bioresour. Technol., vol. 99, no. 14, pp. 6214–6222, Sep. 2008.
A. L. Ahmad, M. M. Loh, and J. A. Aziz, “Preparation and characterization of activated carbon from oil palm wood and its evaluation on Methylene blue adsorption,” Dyes and Pigments, vol. 75, no. 2, pp. 263–272, 2007.
J. Sabseree, “DOE: Central composite design,” For Quality, (in Thai), no. 145, pp. 72–74, Nov. 2009.
Z. Guo et al., “Activated carbons with well-developed microporosity prepared from Phragmites australis by potassium silicate activation,” J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. Eng., vol. 45, no. 5, pp. 2801–2804, Sep. 2014.
N. M. A. Lagtah, A. H. Al-Muhtaseb, M. N. M. Ahmad, and Y. Salameh, “Chemical and physical characteristics of optimal synthesised activated carbons from grass-derived sulfonated lignin versus commercial activated carbons,” Microporous Mesoporous Mater., vol. 225, pp. 504–514, May 2016.
C. R. Correa, T. Otto, and A. Kruse, “Influence of the biomass components on the pore formation of activated carbon,” Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 97, pp. 53–64, Feb. 2017.
S. Li, K. Han, J. Li, M. Li, and C. Lu, “Preparation and characterization of super activated carbon produced from gulfweed by KOH activation,” Microporous Mesoporous Mater., vol. 243, pp. 291–300, May 2017.
Standard Test Method for Moisture Analysis of Particulate Wood Fuels, ASTM E871-82(2006), Nov. 26, 2013. [Online], Available: https://www.astm.org/e0871-82r06.html
Standard Test Method for Ash in Biomass, ASTM E1755-01(2015), Aug. 13, 2020. [Online], Available: https://www.astm.org/e1755-01r15.html
Standard Test Methods for Loss-On-Drying by Thermogravimetry, ASTM E1868-10(2021), Aug. 23, 2022. [Online]. Available: https://www.astm.org/e1868-10r21.html
N. Hegyesiab, R. T. Vadab, and B. Pukánszky, “Determination of the specific surface area of layered silicates by methylene blue adsorption: The role of structure, pH and layer charge,” Appl. Clay Sci., vol. 146, pp. 50–55, Sep. 2017.
A. Albalasmeh et al., “Characterization and artificial neural networks modelling of methylene blue adsorption of biochar derived from agricultural residues: Effect of biomass type, pyrolysis temperature, particle size,” J. Saudi Chem. Soc., vol. 24, no. 11, pp. 811–823, Nov. 2020.
A. Tomczyk, Z. Sokołowska, and P. Boguta, “Biochar physicochemical properties: pyrolysis temperature and feedstock kind effects,” Rev. Environ. Sci. Biotechnol., vol. 19, pp.191–215, 2020.
S. Pap et al., “Optimising production of a biochar made from conifer brash and investigation of its potential for phosphate and ammonia removal,” Ind. Crops. Prod., vol. 185, Oct. 2022.
M. Hu et al., “Towards understanding the chemical reactions between KOH and oxygen-containing groups during KOH-catalyzed pyrolysis of biomass,” Energy, vol. 245, Apr. 2022, Art no. 123286.
W. Chen et al., “Insight into KOH activation mechanism during biomass pyrolysis: Chemical reactions between O-containing groups and KOH,” Appl. Energy, vol. 278, Nov. 2020, Art. no. 1157303.
J. O. Amode, J. H. Santos, Z. Md. Alam, A. H. Mirza, and C. C. Mei, “Adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solution using untreated and treated (Metroxylon spp.) waste adsorbent: equilibrium and kinetics studies,” Int. J. Ind. Chem., vol. 7, pp. 333–345, 2016.
L. Zhao et al., “Roles of phosphoric acid in biochar formation: Synchronously improving carbon retention and sorption capacity,” J. Environ. Qual., vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 393–401, 2017.
Y. Li, X. Zhang, R. Yang, G. Li, and C. Hu, “The role of H3PO4 in the preparation of activated carbon from NaOH-treated rice husk residue,” RSC Adv., vol. 5, no. 41, pp. 32626–32636, 2015.
N. Yuan, H. Cai, T. Liu, Q. Huang, and X. Zhang, “Adsorptive removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution using coal fly ash-derived mesoporous silica material,” Adsorpt. Sci. Technol., vol. 37, no. 3-4, pp. 333–348, 2019.