Main Article Content
Renewable energy becomes an emerging trend in many countries. Photovoltaic (PV) technology has been gaining an increasing amount of attention due to its unpolluted operation. Importantly, the PV system should be utilized with safety awareness. The problem of hotspot takes place due to the mismatch in the irradiation of the cells in the PV module. Under the hotspot condition, the unshaded part of the module operates at a current level higher than the shaded cell. As a result, the affected cells start to dissipate power leading to an increase in the temperature. Afterward, the hotspot reduces performance and brings damage to the PV module. This paper presents the hotspot detection algorithm that can integrate with the PV’s MPPT system. The method uses the concept of characteristic curves analysis and the rate of current changes under reversed bias conditions to detect the hotspot. Moreover, the algorithm displays the PV system’s status indicator after the detection completes. The implementations in different testing cases, including various PV sizing at different irradiation levels. Results confirm the performance of the proposed algorithm, showing the accuracy with fast detection.
Article Accepting Policy
The editorial board of Thai-Nichi Institute of Technology is pleased to receive articles from lecturers and experts in the fields of business administration, languages, engineering and technology written in Thai or English. The academic work submitted for publication must not be published in any other publication before and must not be under consideration of other journal submissions. Therefore, those interested in participating in the dissemination of work and knowledge can submit their article to the editorial board for further submission to the screening committee to consider publishing in the journal. The articles that can be published include solely research articles. Interested persons can prepare their articles by reviewing recommendations for article authors.
Copyright infringement is solely the responsibility of the author(s) of the article. Articles that have been published must be screened and reviewed for quality from qualified experts approved by the editorial board.
The text that appears within each article published in this research journal is a personal opinion of each author, nothing related to Thai-Nichi Institute of Technology, and other faculty members in the institution in any way. Responsibilities and accuracy for the content of each article are owned by each author. If there is any mistake, each author will be responsible for his/her own article(s).
The editorial board reserves the right not to bring any content, views or comments of articles in the Journal of Thai-Nichi Institute of Technology to publish before receiving permission from the authorized author(s) in writing. The published work is the copyright of the Journal of Thai-Nichi Institute of Technology.
A. M. Salazar and E. Q. B. Macabebe, “Hotspots dtection in photovoltaic modules using infrared termography,” in The 3rd Int. Conf. Manufacturing and Industrial Technologies (ICMIT 2016), Istanbul, Turkey, May 2016, pp. 1–5, doi: 10.1051/matecconf/20167010015.
M. Dhimish, P. Mather, and V. Holmes, “Evaluating power loss and performance ratio of hot-spotted photovoltaic modules,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, vol. 65, no. 12, pp. 5419–5427, 2018, doi: 10.1109/TED.2018. 2877806.
D. S. Pillai and N. Rajasekar, “A comprehensive review on protection challenges and fault diagnosis in PV systems,” Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 91, pp. 18–40, Aug. 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2018.03.082.
B. Hossam and K. Itako, “Real time hotspot detection using scan-method adopted with P&O MPPT for PV generation system,” in 2016 IEEE 2nd Annual Southern Power Electronics Conf. (SPEC), Auckland, New Zealand, Dec. 2016, pp. 1–5, doi: 10.1109/SPEC.2016.7846122.
K. Yedidi, S. Tatapudi, J. Mallineni, B. Knisely, J. Kutiche, and G. TamizhMani, “Failure and degradation modes and rates of PV modules in a hot-dry climate: Results after 16 years of field exposure,” in 2014 IEEE 40th Photovoltaic Specialist Conf. (PVSC), Denver, CO, USA, Jun. 2014, pp. 3245–3247, doi: 10.1109/PVSC.2014.6925626.
I. U. Khalil, A. U. Haq, Y. Mahmoud, M. Jalal, M. Aamir, M. U. Ahsan, and K. Mehmood, “Comparative analysis of photovoltaic faults and prformance evaluation of its detection techniques,” IEEE Access, vol. 8, pp. 26676–26700, 2020, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2020.2970531.
P. Bharadwaj, K. Karnataki, and V. John, “Formation of hotspots on healthy PV modules and their effect on output performance,” in 2018 IEEE 7th World Conf. Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (WCPEC), Waikoloa, HI, USA, Jun. 2018, pp. 0676–0680, doi: 10.1109/PVSC.2018. 8548126.
S. Deng, Z. Zhang, C. Ju, J. Dong, Z. Xia, X. Yan, T. Xua, and G. Xing, “Research on hot spot risk for high-efficiency solar module,” Energy Procedia, vol. 130, pp. 77–86, Sep. 2017, doi: 0.1016/j.egypro.2017.09.399.
U. Hoyer, A. Burkert, R. Auer, C. B. Lutz, C. Vodermayer, M. Mayer, and G. Wotruba, “Analysis of PV modules by electroluminescence and IR thermography,” in 24th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conf. (24th PVSEC), Hamburg, Germany, Sep. 2009, pp. 21–25.
L. Antonio and H. Steven, Handbook of photovoltaic science and engineering, Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, 2003.
M. Simon and E. L. Meyer, “Detection and analysis of hot-spot formation in solar cells,” Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells, vol. 94, no. 2, pp. 106–113, Feb. 2010, doi: 10.1016/j.solmat.2009.09.016.
Y. Wang, K. Itako, T. Kudoh, K. Koh, and Q. Ge, “Voltage-based hot-spot detection method for photovoltaic string using a projector,” Energies, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 1–14, 2017, doi: 10.3390/en10020230.
K. A. Kim and P. T. Krein, “Reexamination of photovoltaic hot spotting to show inadequacy of the bypass diode,” IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 1435–1441, Sep. 2015, doi: 10.1109/jphotov.2015.2444091.
T. Ghanbari, “Hot spot detection and prevention using a simple method in photovoltaic panels,” IET Generation, Transmission & Distribution, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 883–890, Mar. 2017, doi: 10.1049/iet-gtd.2016.0794.
Terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) modules- design qualification and type approval - Part 1: Test requirements, IEC 61215-1, 2016.
D. Rossi, M. Omana, D. Giaffreda, and C. Metra, “Modeling and detection of hotspot in shaded photovoltaic cells,” IEEE Trans. Very Large Scale Integration, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 1031–1039, Jun. 2015, doi: 10.1109/tvlsi. 2014.2333064.
J. Gosumbonggot and G. Fujita, “Partial shading detection and global maximum power point tracking algorithm for photovoltaic with the variation of irradiation and temperature,” Energies, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 1–22, Jan. 2019, doi: 10.3390/en12020202.
T. Ghanbari, “Permanent partial shading detection for protection of photovoltaic panels against hot spotting,” IET Renewable Power Generation, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 123–131, Sep. 2016, doi: 10.1049/iet-rpg.2016.0294.