Main Article Content
The aim of this paper is to reveal the correlations between the white/high reflection engobe (WRE) composition and their properties for earthenware wall tile industry. The engobes were formulated using (wt%) porcelain clay (PC) 72-80, recycled cullet (RC) 9-10, borax 9-10 and TiO2 0-9. The mixtures were wet ground for 30 min in a pot mill and their specific gravity was controlled at 1.6 g/cm3. The engobe slips were spray coated on earthenware wall tiles different thicknesses at 160-250 m. The engobed tiles were single-fired at 950-1100oC in a gas furnace for 15 min. The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) was determined by dilatometer. The adhesion ability was investigated by tape-peel method. The whiteness and reflection values were determined by colorimeter and spectrophotometer, respectively. The phase composition and microstructure were evaluated by x-ray diffractometer and scanning electron microscope, respectively. The results showed the WRE composing microline, anatase, albite, anorthite, quartz and corundum had the CTE values nearby the wall tile. The whiteness and reflectance reached to the highest values at 4.76 wt%TiO2 and layer thickness at 250 m. At high temperatures, the whiteness and reflection slightly decreased due to the formations of mullite and rutile. The optimization of WRE composed (in wt%) of PC 76.19, RC 9.52, borax 9.52 and TiO2 4.76% representing whiteness 95.51%, reflectance up to 85% by controlling the thickness at 250 μm and temperature at 1000oC.
Article Accepting Policy
The editorial board of Thai-Nichi Institute of Technology is pleased to receive articles from lecturers and experts in the fields of business administration, languages, engineering and technology written in Thai or English. The academic work submitted for publication must not be published in any other publication before and must not be under consideration of other journal submissions. Therefore, those interested in participating in the dissemination of work and knowledge can submit their article to the editorial board for further submission to the screening committee to consider publishing in the journal. The articles that can be published include solely research articles. Interested persons can prepare their articles by reviewing recommendations for article authors.
Copyright infringement is solely the responsibility of the author(s) of the article. Articles that have been published must be screened and reviewed for quality from qualified experts approved by the editorial board.
The text that appears within each article published in this research journal is a personal opinion of each author, nothing related to Thai-Nichi Institute of Technology, and other faculty members in the institution in any way. Responsibilities and accuracy for the content of each article are owned by each author. If there is any mistake, each author will be responsible for his/her own article(s).
The editorial board reserves the right not to bring any content, views or comments of articles in the Journal of Thai-Nichi Institute of Technology to publish before receiving permission from the authorized author(s) in writing. The published work is the copyright of the Journal of Thai-Nichi Institute of Technology.
L. Esposito, P. Generall, A. Tucci, and S. Nuzzielo, “Hardness of glazed ceramic tiles: comparison between mohs hardness and vicker indentation method,” Ceram. Acta., vol. 5(4-5), pp. 13-21, 1993.
M. Romero, J. M. Rincon, and A. Acosta, “Crystallization of zirconium-based glaze for ceramic tile coating,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc., vol. 23, pp. 1629-1635, 2003.
C. Ferrari, A. Libbra, A. Muscio, and C. Siligardi, “Design of ceramic tile with high solar reflectance through the development of a functional engobe,” Ceram. Inter., vol. 39, pp. 9583-9590, 2013.
R. Levinson, P. Berdahl, H. Akbari, W. Miller, I. Joedicke, J. Reilly, Y. Suzuki, and M. Vondram, “Methods of creating solarreflective nonwhite surfaces and their application to residential roofing materials,” Solar Ener. Mater. Solar Cells, vol. 91(4), pp. 304-314, 2007.
A. Synnefa, M. Santamouris, and K. Apostolakis, “On the development, optical properties and thermal performance of cool colored coatings for the urban environment,” Solar Ener., vol. 81(4), pp. 488-497, 2007.
S. Kültür and N. Türkerí, “Assessment of long term solar reflectance performance of roof coverings measured in laboratory and in filed,” Build. Environ., vol. 48, pp. 164-172, 2012.
R. Levinson, P. Berdahl, and H. Akbari, “Solar spectral optical properties of pigments- Part II: survey of common colorants,” Solar Ener. Mater. Solar Cells, vol. 89(4), pp. 351-389, 2005.
T. Thongkamluang, T. P. Limsuwan, and P. Rakkwamsuk, “Preparation and application of high near-infrared reflective green pigment for ceramic tile roofs,” Inter. J. Applied Ceram. Technol., vol. 8(6), pp. 1451-1458, 2011.
G. A. Davidson, “A modified tape-peel technique for preparing permanent qualitative microfossil slides,” J. Paleolimnol., vol. 1, pp. 229-234, 1988.
“Borax data sheet,” Riotinto Minerals, US.
G. R. Santos, M. C. Pereira, M. O. Dionysio, S. D. Souza, and M. R. Morelli, “Whiteness process of tile ceramics: using a synthetic flow as a modifier agent of color firing,” Hyper. Interact, vol. 224, pp. 137-142, 2014.
M. Romero, J M. Rincón, and A. Costa, “Effect of iron oxide on the crystallization of a diopside glass-ceramic glaze,” J. Euro. Ceram. Soc., vol. 22, pp. 883-890, 2002.
C. Li, G. W. Kaatawar, and P. Yand, “Effects of surface roughness on light scattering by small particles,” J. Quanti. Spcetro., vol. 89, pp. 123-131, 2004
H. Bodur, “Development of engobe compositions for local roof tiles,” M. Sc. Thesis, Engineering and Sciences of Izmir Institute of Technology, Izmir, Turkey, June 2010.
S. B. Felisbino, K. W. Milanez, H. G. Riella, and A. M. Bernardin, “Influence of glaze particle size distribution on surface tension and gloss,” in Proc. Qualicer, 2004, p. 201.
R. H. French, H. Müllejans, and D. J. Jones, “Optical properties of aluminum oxide: Determined from vacuum ultraviolet and electron energy-loss spectroscopies,” J. Amer. Ceram. Soc., vol. 81(10), pp. 2549-2557, 1998.
I. Johari, S. Said, B. Hisham, A. Bakar, and Z. A. Ahmad, “Effect of the change of firing temperature on microstructure and physical properties of clay bricks from Beruas (Malaysia),” Sci. Sinter., vol. 42, pp. 245-254, 2010.
S. Teixeira and A. M. Bernardin, “Development of TiO2 white glazes for ceramic tiles,” Dyes and Pigments, vol. 80, pp. 292-296, 2009.