PSRU Journal of Science and Technology <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; PSRU Journal of Science and Technology is a peer-reviewed journal of Faculty of Science and Technology, Pibulsongkram Rajabhat University. The journal devoted to publish of&nbsp; original research article and review article in science and technology. The journal is indexed in TCI Tier 2.</p> <p>Three issues are published a year (January-April, June-August and September-December).</p> <p>Online ISSN 2672-9741</p> <p>Print ISSN 2465-5112</p> en-US <p>กองบรรณาธิการขอสงวนสิทธิ์ในการปรับปรุงแก้ไขตัวอักษรและคำสะกดต่างๆ ที่ไม่ถูกต้อง และต้นฉบับที่ได้รับการตีพิมพ์ในวารสาร PSRU Journal of Science and Technology ถือเป็นกรรมสิทธิ์ของคณะวิทยาศาสตร์และเทคโนโลยี มหาวิทยาลัยราชภัฏพิบูลสงคราม และ<br>ผลการพิจารณาคัดเลือกบทความตีพิมพ์ในวารสารให้ถือมติของกองบรรณาธิการเป็นที่สิ้นสุด&nbsp;</p> (Asst. Prof. Dr. Rapiphun Janmanee) (Miss Sukanya samutkhet) Fri, 27 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0700 OJS 60 บทบรรณาธิการ <p>บทบรรณาธิการ</p> Copyright (c) 2021 PSRU Journal of Science and Technology Thu, 19 Aug 2021 16:06:03 +0700 สารบัญ <p>สารบัญ</p> Copyright (c) 2021 PSRU Journal of Science and Technology Thu, 26 Aug 2021 16:39:41 +0700 EFFICIENCY OF CAPACITOR IN CCTO CERAMICS WITH ACTIVATED CARBON DERIVED FROM TAMARIND FRUIT SHELLS <p>Sweet tamarind is one of the important economic corps which tamarind fruit shells go to waste after being removed. In this study, tamarind fruit shells activated using KOH and rinsed with HCl under ambient pressure were used to synthesize activated carbon with high carbon porosity. After that, CaCu<sub>3</sub>Ti<sub>4</sub>O<sub>12</sub> (CCTO) with high dielectric constant was synthesized using simplified method and added activated carbon in the proportion of 10, 15, 25 and 50 mol%, respectively. The results from XRD analysis of carbon phases and SEM analysis of particle profile and porosity showed that at 50 mol% phase of carbon increases and high porosity was found. Additionally, the activated carbon derived from tamarind fruit shells with 50 mol% was studied for its efficiency of capacitance, dielectric constant and dielectric loss using Impedance analyzer. It was found that CCTO with activated carbon derived from tamarind fruit shells at 50 mol% had the highest electrical capacitance and dielectric constant at 50 Hz accounting for 63-time higher than that of CCTO without activated carbon derived from tamarind fruit shells. The results also suggested that the capacitance, dielectric constant and dielectric loss decreased when the frequency was higher. This means that activated carbon derived from tamarind fruit shells increases the capacitance of CCTO ceramics and makes it suitable for the invention of electrical capacitors.</p> Sanit Suwanwong; Artit Hutem Copyright (c) 2021 PSRU Journal of Science and Technology Thu, 19 Aug 2021 12:44:41 +0700 EFFECT OF LACTOBACILLUS SPP. SUPPLEMENTATION ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND DECREASING CONTAMINATION OF SPOILAGE BACTERIA IN CHICKEN MEAT <p>This study aims to investigate effects of <em>Lactobacillus</em> spp. on growth performance in broiler chicken and on bacterial spoilage contamination in their meat under refrigeration storage (4-6°C). Ninety chicks (1 day old) were randomly assigned into 3 groups with 30 chicks per group. Three diets were provided following: group 1 basal diet (recommended by NRC), group 2 basal diet supplemented with <em>Lactobacillus</em> <em>salivarius </em>L61 (1´10<sup>7 </sup>CFU/ g of feed) and group 3 basal diet supplemented with commercial probiotic<em> strain (Lactobacillus plantarum</em> Fr-B) (1´ 10<sup>7 </sup>CFU/ g of feed). <em>Lactobacillus</em> supplementation was started at 25 day old and finished at 35 day old of broilers. Each group of 10 chicks was randomly slaughtered and sampled intestinal contents for coliform plate count. Breast meat samples were collected under refrigeration storage (4-6 °C) for 1 and 3 days, and analyzed for coliform bacteria and <em>Pseudomonas</em> spp. counts. This result showed that <em>L</em>. <em>salivarius </em>L61 supplementation improved growth performance (<em>p&lt;</em> 0.05) compared to control group. Coliform and <em>Pseudomonas</em> spp. counts in refrigerated meat at 1 day from chickens raised basal diet with either <em>L</em>. <em>salivarius </em>L61 or <em>L. plantarum</em> Fr-B supplementation were significantly lower (<em>p&lt;</em> 0.05) compared to control group. Moreover, <em>L</em>. <em>salivarius </em>L61 supplementation showed the highest reduction of <em>Pseudomonas</em> spp. counts in meat under refrigeration storage for 1 or 3 days compared to control group (<em>p&lt;</em> 0.05). <em>L</em>. <em>salivarius </em>L61 supplementation can reduce contaminant coliform and <em>Pseudomonas</em> spp. counts in meat under refrigeration storage for 1 day at 84.16% and 98.42%, respectively. This study indicated that supplementation of <em>L</em>. <em>salivarius </em>L61 in broiler diets may improve shelf life of broiler chicken meat under refrigeration storage.</p> Pairat Sornplang; Chaiyaporn Soikum Copyright (c) 2021 PSRU Journal of Science and Technology Thu, 19 Aug 2021 13:25:44 +0700 The SOLVE THE SERIES OF RLC CIRCUIT VIA THE TIME-DEPENDENT VOLTAGE SINE FUNCTION USING WRONSKIAN’S OF DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION <p>In this paper, we developed the mathematics and physics of the series of RLC circuits. The purpose of this study is to calculate for finding the time-dependent electric charge and the time-dependent energy static charge that because of time-dependent voltage which in sine function by using the second-order non-homogeneous linear ordinary differential equation and integration by part technique. We find that the charge corresponds to capacitance but inversely proportional to induction. The wave group of the time-dependent energy static charge depends on the ratio between resistance with double inductance and angular frequency parameter.</p> Artit Hutem; Nutnicha Masoongnoen Copyright (c) 2021 PSRU Journal of Science and Technology Thu, 19 Aug 2021 13:45:06 +0700 THE ABSORPTION COEFFICIENTS IN A RIGHT TRIANGULAR QUANTUM DOT <p>In this research, we study the electronic structure and optical properties of the right triangular quantum dot. Using effective mass approximation, we solve the schrӧdinger equation to obtain analytic solutions of the eigenenergies as well as eigenfunctions and use them to calculate the oscillator strength and absorption coefficients. We found that the probability densities of the transition due to x-polarized and y-polarized light have the same distribution pattern. After considering linear and nonlinear absorption coefficients, it is found that the resonant peaks show redshift phenomenon when the system size increases. The absorption from the ground state to the first excited state is dominant when the system size is less than 20 nm. While that from the ground state to the second excited state is dominant when the system size is greater than 20 nm. This is because of increasing magnitude of the nonlinear term. The optical properties we find will bring benefits to designing novel optoelectronic devices.</p> Jirarut Joonhuay, Jinda Phowen, Watcharakorn Srikom; Attapon Amthong Copyright (c) 2021 PSRU Journal of Science and Technology Thu, 19 Aug 2021 13:52:44 +0700 THE PREPARATION OF POLYCAPROLACTONE FIBERS FILM CONTAINING ARTOCARPUS LAKOOCHA EXTRACT BY ELECTROSPINNING TECHNIQUE FOR ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;This research, the polycaprolactone fibers containing <em>A. lakoocha</em> extract were prepared by electrospinning technique. The optimum condition for fibers formation was investigated and tested for the antibacterial activity. The results showed that the optimum condition of polycaprolactone fibers was 16 w/v% of polycaprolactone solution. The electrospinning conditions were as follows; the diameter of metallic needle was 0.8 mm, the distance between the needle tips to the collector was 20 cm and the electric field was 90 kV/m. <br>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; The results of the <em>A. lakoocha</em> extraction were found that, the %yield of 5.3 by weight. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of <em>A. lakoocha</em> crude extract was in the range of 3.12–6.25 mg/ml. After preparation of polycaprolactone fibers with the <em>A. lakoocha</em> extract, the viscosity of the polymer solution was increased with increasing the concentration of the <em>A. lakoocha</em> extract. For the antibacterial tests by disc diffusion method, the polycaprolactone fiber with the <em>A. lakoocha</em> extract were tested against <em>Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis)</em>, <em>Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus)</em> and <em>Escherichia coli (E. coli)</em>. The antibacterial activity of polycaprolactone fiber with the <em>A. lakoocha</em> extract at 8.0 w/V% indicated that the inhibition zone was 12.0±0.05 mm and 9.2±0.10 mm against <em>B. subtilis</em> and <em>S. aureus</em>, and the inhibition zone was not found after testing with <em>E. coli</em>. Respectively. From the properties of the polycaprolactone fiber film prepared by the electrospinning technique and the antibacterial properties of the <em>A. lakoocha</em> extract, the fibrous film could be developed to use as a wound dressing for prevent infection in wound.</p> Ruangwut Chutima; Krit Sutjarittangtham Copyright (c) 2021 PSRU Journal of Science and Technology Thu, 19 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0700 PRODUCTION OF POLYHYDROXYALKANOATE FROM USED COOKING OIL BY SOIL-ISOLATED BACTERIA <p>Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) are synthesized and accumulated in bacterial cells to serve as an energy source. The objective of this research was to select bacteria capable of producing high PHA from soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and to study the optimum conditions for producing PHA. Soil samples of 3 areas: the grass burning area, area contaminated with engine oil and area contaminated with agricultural chemicals were used for screening bacteria through Mineral Salt Medium (MSM) with 1%w/v glucose as a carbon source. PHA synthesis was preliminary tested by staining cells with Sudan Black B. It was found that 4 bacterial isolates were selected from 91 bacterial isolates. SCODw0.2 isolated from soil contaminated with engine oil was able to produce the highest PHA at 0.605 g/L (55.0% of dry cell weight). The optimum conditions of PHA synthesis from used cooking oil by SCODw0.2 were investigated. It was found that this isolate bacterium could produce highest PHA about 0.879 g/l (68.9% of dry cell weight) when cultured in MSM medium containing used cooking oil and ammonium sulphate as carbon source and nitrogen source, respectively, at ratio of 100 : 1, pH 7 and incubated at 35 °C for 60 hours. The composition of PHA that synthesized by bacteria when analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was consisted of 3-hydroxydodecanoate, 3-hydroxytetradecanoate and others were 72.94, 12.92 and 14.14 %, respectively.</p> Porntippa Pinyaphong Copyright (c) 2021 PSRU Journal of Science and Technology Thu, 19 Aug 2021 14:28:47 +0700 USE OF COFFEE GROUND WASTE WITH RUBBER WOOD SAWDUST FOR GOLDEN OYSTER MUSHROOM (PLEUROTUS CITRINOPILEATUS SINGER) CULTIVATION MATERIAL <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;The study of using coffee ground waste with rubber wood sawdust for golden oyster mushroom (<em>Pleurotus citrinopileatus</em> Singer) cultivation material was examined. <br>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;The objectives of this research were to study the growth of gold oyster mushroom and to investigate biological efficiency (% B.E.) and protein of golden oyster mushroom. The experimental design of this research was a completely randomized design (CRD) with 6 treatments and 3 replicates per treatment. The experimental replacement of coffee ground waste with rubber wood sawdust ratios were 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% and using sawdust only as a control (0% replacement). The results found that the replacement of coffee ground waste with rubber wood sawdust ratio of 20% were the highest number of mushroom (60.42<u>+</u>0.46 unit) and 40% had the most width and wet weight of mushrooms as 5.14<u>+</u>0.02 cm. and 36.28<u>+</u>0.42 g, respectively at the statistically significant level of p&lt;0.05. The comparison of % B.E. with the control found that the replacement of rubber wood sawdust ratio of 40% was the highest 42.68% at the statistically significant level of p&lt;0.05. The results of protein of golden oyster mushroom which the replacement of rubber wood sawdust ratio of 60% and 40% were height 37.15<u>+</u>0.11 and 36.67<u>+</u>0.14 g/100 g at the statistically significant level of p&lt;0.05. Thus, it can be concluded that coffee ground waste can instead of rubber wood sawdust for golden oyster mushroom cultivation.</p> Tanyarat Kamsan; Peeranart Kiddee; Prisana Wonglom Copyright (c) 2021 PSRU Journal of Science and Technology Thu, 19 Aug 2021 14:38:50 +0700 HEAVY METAL CONTAMINATION IN SOIL OF ECONOMIC VEGETABLE PRODUCING AREAS IN PHITSANULOK PROVINCE <p>This research was to study the content of heavy metals in the soil for growing five economic vegetables in Bueng Phra Sub-district, Mueang District, Phitsanulok Province, including lettuce, Chinese cabbage, morning glory, Chinese kale, and spring onions for 10 planting plots per each vegetable, and 5 planting plots of parsley with totally 55 planting plots. Heavy metal contents were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). The results found that the soils in vegetable plots were contaminated with averaged lead, copper, zinc, and iron of 2.98±3.06, 10.97±2.48, 32.38±9.52 and 3,898.31±932.89 mg/kg, respectively, while cadmium could not detected in all planting plots. Almost heavy metal contents were within the soil quality standard according to the recommended limits set by Notification of National Environment Board B.E. 2547, excepted iron. However, farmers should change chemical vegetation practice into good agricultural practices (GAP) or organic practice systems will contribute to have good quality produce, sustainable productivity and reduced use of pesticides.</p> Phunnipa Tamdee ; Piyada Wachirawongsakorn Copyright (c) 2021 PSRU Journal of Science and Technology Thu, 19 Aug 2021 14:52:39 +0700 ASSESSMENT OF GENE PROFILES ASSOCIATED WITH PUNGENCY LEVELS IN CHILI (CAPSICUM SPP.) <p>Chili in the genus <em>Capsicum</em> is globally cultivated as an economic vegetable crop, and used in traditionally pungent cuisines, especially in Thailand. Degrees of pungency were positively correlated with capsaicin biosynthesis, which was strongly influenced by genotype and associated with several enzyme-encoding genes. Five candidate genes (<em>PUN1</em>, <em>HCT</em>, <em>pAMT</em>, <em>CCR</em> and <em>KAS</em>) responsible for capsaicin synthesis were assessed among fourteen <em>Capsicum </em>cultivars. Results showed that all putative capsaicin biosynthetic genes were present in five <em>Capsicum</em> cultivars of Bhut Jolokia, Orange Habanero (High pungency) and Tubtim Mordindang, Phet Mordingang and Akanee Pirote (Moderate pungency). Two genes (<em>HCT</em> and <em>pAMT</em>) were absent in all eight low pungent cultivars (Jindanil 80, Bang Chang, Yodson Khem 80, Num Khao Donyang, Num Keowtong 80, Hua-ruea, Huai Si Thon Kham Kaen and Chai Tai). Analysis of the capsaicin biosynthetic genes showed that <em>Capsicum </em>cultivar KKU-P28016 (breeding line from Khon Kaen University) contained <em>PUN1</em>, <em>pAMT</em>, <em>CCR</em> and <em>KAS</em> genes, suggesting identity as the moderately pungent <em>Capsicum </em>group. Mature fruit phenotypic traits among the studied <em>Capsicum</em> cultivars showed that a globose-oval shape of mature fruit was detected among highly and moderately pungent <em>Capsicum</em> cultivars, while an elongated shape of mature fruit was observed in low pungent cultivars. High correlation between the phenotypic trait of mature fruit shape and gene profiles is a powerful tool to discriminate pungency levels in <em>Capsicum </em>cultivars.</p> Chaichan Maneerattanarungroj, Kawee Sujipuli, Chakkraphong Khonthun, Srisangwan Laywisadkul; Surisak Prasarnpun Copyright (c) 2021 PSRU Journal of Science and Technology Thu, 19 Aug 2021 15:04:54 +0700 EFFECT OF SOIL PH ON THE APPEARANCES OF ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI <p>The objective of this research is to study the effect of soil pH on the appearances of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) using sorghum (<em>Sorghum bicolor</em> (L.) Moench.) as the host plant. Thirty soil samples were collected in Phitsanulok and Sukhothai Provinces. All soil samplings were mixed, lower soil pH using chicken dung and higher soil pH using limestone. Soil was divided into 3 treatments including acid soil (pH 4-5) neutral soil (pH 6.5-7.5) and basic soil (pH 9-10). Each treatment had 5 replications and each replication had 5 sorghum seedlings per pot. All sorghums were cultured in greenhouse and watering with groundwater for 12 weeks. Growth of sorghum, height, fresh and dry of shoot weight, fresh and dry of root weight, number of AMF spore by wet sieving and species identification by spore morphology were recorded. It was found that all AMF obtained belong to genus <em>Acaulospora </em>(7 morphotaxa). <em>Acaulospora</em> sp.06 is the dominant species in all treatments. Neutral soil is optimal condition for growth of AMF and sorghum in all indicators including survival after transplanting (100%), species appearance (4 morphotaxa), spore number increasing (39 times) <br>and root colonization of AMF (53.3%). Then, species diversity index has highest both of Shannon-Wiener (<em>H’</em>=1.32) and Simpson (<em>C</em>=0.72). The results showed that neutral soil affects to species number and the appearance of AMF growth. Trap culture using sorghum is good method to show AMF species in their living environment.</p> Orathai Jungjai ; Supattra Charoenpakdee Bodeerat Copyright (c) 2021 PSRU Journal of Science and Technology Fri, 27 Aug 2021 10:26:21 +0700