PSRU Journal of Science and Technology <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; PSRU Journal of Science and Technology is a peer-reviewed journal of Faculty of Science and Technology, Pibulsongkram Rajabhat University. The journal devoted to publish of&nbsp; original research article and review article in science and technology. The journal is indexed in TCI Tier 2.</p> <p>Three issues are published a year (January-April, June-August and September-December).</p> <p>Online ISSN 2672-9741</p> <p>Print ISSN 2465-5112</p> คณะวิทยาศาสตร์และเทคโนโลยี มหาวิทยาลัยราชภัฏพิบูลสงคราม en-US PSRU Journal of Science and Technology 2465-5112 <p>กองบรรณาธิการขอสงวนสิทธิ์ในการปรับปรุงแก้ไขตัวอักษรและคำสะกดต่างๆ ที่ไม่ถูกต้อง และต้นฉบับที่ได้รับการตีพิมพ์ในวารสาร PSRU Journal of Science and Technology ถือเป็นกรรมสิทธิ์ของคณะวิทยาศาสตร์และเทคโนโลยี มหาวิทยาลัยราชภัฏพิบูลสงคราม และ<br>ผลการพิจารณาคัดเลือกบทความตีพิมพ์ในวารสารให้ถือมติของกองบรรณาธิการเป็นที่สิ้นสุด&nbsp;</p> บทบรรณาธิการ <p>บทบรรณาธิการ</p> Copyright (c) 2022 PSRU Journal of Science and Technology 2022-04-25 2022-04-25 7 1 สารบัญ <p>สารบัญ</p> Copyright (c) 2022 PSRU Journal of Science and Technology 2022-04-25 2022-04-25 7 1 SOME MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS OF DISPLAY TREES OF FIREFLY PTEROPTYX MALACCAE (LAMPYRIDAE: LUCIOLINAE) IN THE WELU WETLAND MANGROVE FOREST, KHLUNG DISTRICT, CHANTHABURI PROVINCE <p>Study on some morphological characters of display tree of firefly species <em>Pteroptyx malaccae</em> in the Welu Wetland Mangrove Forest, Khlung district, Chanthaburi province for investigate the characteristic aspects of firefly display trees was conducted between February 2019 and January 2020. The 10 surveys were started after sunset at a new moon night. The adult firefly was found in all surveying periods with a summation of 2,269 individuals. The most firefly abundance was recorded in January 2020 with 567 individuals, and the lowest abundance was recorded in May 2019 with 67 fireflies. Four species of host plants were recorded consist <em>Acacia mangium </em>Willd,<em> Avicennia officinalis </em>L., <em>Melaleuca cajuputi</em> Powell and <em>Rhizophora apiculata</em> Blume. The result showed that fireflies tended to perch to trees 8.44 meters in average height and the canopy radius were 2.98 meters in average with smaller leaves (3.98 centimeters of leaf blade width, 10.50 centimeters of leaf blade length, 359.54 micrometers of leaf blade thickness and 35.06 square centimeters of leave areas, averagely). The result also showed the significant difference of the characteristics of the host plants and the non-host plants (P&lt;0.05) at the 0.05 level.</p> Sorasak Nakeiam Prapaporn Pholkerd Na-monrug Khamchatra Copyright (c) 2022 PSRU Journal of Science and Technology 2022-04-25 2022-04-25 7 1 1 13 DEVELOPMENT OF CULTURE MEDIA FOR CORDYCEPS MILITARIS CULTIVATION WITH MOLASSES <p>The objective of this study was studied to effect of culture medium mixed with molasses and protein sources that were silkworm pupa and milk powder on yield and bioactive compound production of <em>Cordyceps militaris</em>. The experiment design was done by using Completely Randomized Design with 3 replications, 3 bottles each. <em>C. militaris</em> was cultivated on 14 formulas solid media for 65 days. Results showed that the formula 10 (30 g of Sao Hai rice mixed with 50 mL of molasses 5% w/v and 5 g of silkworm pupa) showed the highest yield and bioactive compound production. The number of fruiting bodies and fresh weight had 61.15 fruit bodies/bottle and 42.39 g/bottle, respectively. The shape of fruiting bodies was longer than fruiting bodies in other formulas (6.44 cm). The color that expressed in lightness (L*), red (a*) and yellow (b*) were 56.27, 23.67 and 47.81, respectively. The content of bioactive components, adenosine and cordycepin were 1,853.85 and 2,255.47 mg/kg, respectively.</p> Natthapong Singpoonga Rattana Yosmethakun Copyright (c) 2022 PSRU Journal of Science and Technology 2022-04-25 2022-04-25 7 1 14 29 DIVERSITY OF FUNGI ON RICE VARIETY PHITSANULOK 2 IN NONGKLAB, SAWANKHALOK, SUKHOTHAI PROVINCE <p>Rice disease caused by fungi is very devastating to the rice yield. The objective of this research is to study diversity of fungi on rice variety Phitsanulok 2 in Nongklab, Sawankhalok, Sukhothai province. Thirteen rice samples were collected from the field in two sampling times. Isolation of the fungi has been done by using tissue transplanting technique on PDA medium, then transferred fungal hyphal tip to new petri dish. Totally 43 isolates of fungi have been obtained, where 39 isolates are sporulated and 4 isolates are non-sporulated ones. Identification of the fungi was done based on morphological characteristics of fungal colony, growth characteristics of mycelium and spore production. Microscopic characteristics of fungi were then examined under compound microscope using slide culture technique. Generic name of each fungus was specified by comparing the information with relevant documents. Identification results showed that sporulated fungal isolates are belong to the following genera <em>viz</em> <em>Alternaria</em>, <em>Aspergillus</em>, <em>Bipolaris</em>, <em>Curvularia</em>, <em>Nigrospora</em> and <em>Scopulariopsis</em>, while non-sporulated isolates were classified as unidentified mycelia-sterilia. The dominant fungal genera found in this study are <em>Curvularia </em>spp. (11 isolates; 25.58%), <em>Nigrospora</em> spp. (10 isolates; 23.26%) and <em>Aspergillus</em> spp. (8 isolates; 18.60%), respectively.</p> Montakan Jitjumnong Pornpat Samang Rampai Kodsueb Copyright (c) 2022 PSRU Journal of Science and Technology 2022-04-25 2022-04-25 7 1 30 44 APPLICATION OF POUZOLZIA PENTANDRA (ROXB.) BENN. LEAF EXTRACT IN CONTROLLING MEALYBUG (MACONELLICOCCUS HIRSUTUS) <p><em>Pouzolzia pentandra</em> (Roxb.) Benn., an annual plant, has medicinal properties and is used as biological agents i.e. antimicrobial activities and especially insecticides. Therefore, we attempted to explore the effect of <em>P. pentandra</em> leaf methanolic extract on mealybug (<em>Maconellicoccus hirsutus</em>). All trials were designed using spraying at difference concentration including 0, 1,250, 2,500, 5,000 and 10,000 mg/L. In each trial with three replications was done. <br />A total of 20 mealybugs were tested in each replication and used mulberry leaves as their food. The mortality was recorded at 12, 24, 36 and 48 hours after exposure, respectively. It was found that the concentration of 10,000 mg/L displayed the highest mortality rate (98.33%) after 48 hours after exposure. Consequently, it could give LC<sub>50</sub> of the plant extract about 987.86 mg/L. It was noted that the mortality slightly raised when the exposure time increase in all trails. It might be possible that this plant extract could be further applied to control <br />the mealybugs in the area.</p> Pisit Poolprasert Chonlada Soodkeaw Keerati Tanruean Sirirat Phanruang Yuttasak Chammui Wisanu Thongchai Copyright (c) 2022 PSRU Journal of Science and Technology 2022-04-25 2022-04-25 7 1 45 54 AIR POLLUTION AND MORTALITY FROM COVID-19 IN THAILAND <p>The purpose of this research is to investigate the relationship of air pollution and the number of deaths in each Thai province affected by COVID-19. To accomplish so, COVID-19 specific mortality has been normalized for each Thai province 37 provinces and every age group (8 groups) spanning from 0 to 9 years to <u>&gt;</u>70 years, using national population numbers from 2020. A correlation and a linear regression model were used to investigate the association between air pollution and COVID-19 mortality in Thai provinces. As a result, the SMR (Standardized Mortality Ratio) in some provinces is substantially higher than expected and the presence of NO<sub>2</sub> was found to be independently linked with case status. In conclusion, this study appears to uncover evidence that supports the presence of a link between air pollution and the risk of disease-related death, which refers to nitrogen dioxide (NO<sub>2</sub>).</p> Anuwat Sangon Copyright (c) 2022 PSRU Journal of Science and Technology 2022-04-25 2022-04-25 7 1 55 70 EFFECT OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT FROM CHROMOLAENA ODORATA (L.) R.M. KING & H. ROB LEAF ON INHIBITION OF SEED GERMINATION OF BIDENS PILOSA L. AND CHRYSOPOGON ACICULATUS (RETZ.) TRIN <p>This research study aims to determine the effect of methanolic extract from <em>Chromolaena odorata</em> (L.) R.M. King &amp; H. Rob leaves at different concentrations on inhibition of seed germination of <em>Bidens pilosa</em> L. and <em>Chrysopogon aciculatus </em>(Retz.) Trin. The dried powder, which taken from the leaves of the <em>C. odorata</em> Soaked, was dissolved in methanol in the proportion of 10 grams of leaf powder per 100 ml of methanol. The residue was then filtered and the solvent was evaporated by a vacuum evaporator. Methanolic extract from <em>C. odorata</em> leaves was prepared at various concentrations: 5,000, 10,000, 20,000 and 40,000 ppm. Twenty seeds of each weed species were watered in a petri-dish on tissue paper and left at room temperature for 7 days. The results indicated that all concentrations of methanolic extract from <em>C. odorata</em> leaves showed statistically significantly higher inhibition of seed germination of <em>B. pilosa</em> and C. aciculatus than the control group (P&lt;0.01). The highest concentrations that can inhibit the seed germination of<em> B. pilosa</em> were 40,000 and 20,000 ppm, followed by concentrations of 10,000 ppm. The concentration that can inhibit the seed germination of <em>C. aciculatus</em> at the highest concentration was 40,000 ppm, followed by concentration levels 20,000, 10,000 and 5,000 ppm, respectively.</p> phanuphong kason Chanachon Phetbunrueang Wasan Manoruang Copyright (c) 2022 PSRU Journal of Science and Technology 2022-04-25 2022-04-25 7 1 71 82 BIOACTIVITIES AND PHENOLIC OF LANSIUM DOMESTICUM CORR. EXTRACTS (SEED AND PEEL) <p>The seed and peel of Langsat (<em>Lansium domesticum</em> Corr.) were extracted with methanol ethanol and water as solvent and tested for their biological activities. The extracts were tested for their properties included antioxidant activity (DPPH assay, ABTS assay and FRAP assay), antiglycation activity, tyrosinase inhibitor, antibacterial activity, total phenolic contents and HPLC determination of phenolic compounds. The results revealed that methanol peel extract was the most effective extract which showed the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity (48.80±0.09 mg TE/ g DW), tyrosinase inhibitor (181.05±11.09 mg KAE/g DW) and total phenolic contents (27.62±1.37 mg GAE/ g DW). While the peel water extract showed <br />the highest ABTS radical scavenging activity (128.30±1.41 mg TE/ g DW), ferric reducing antioxidant power (0.88±0.07 mg TE/ g DW ) and antiglycation activity (24.26±5.89 % AGE inhibition). In addition, the seed methanol extract revealed the highest antibacterial activity against <em>Escherichia </em><em>coli</em> and <em>Staphylococcus</em> sp. The determination of phenolic compounds by HPLC found only protocatechuic acid in both seed and peel extracts. This study indicated that the peel extracts of Langsat was suitable for cosmeceutical product, pharmaceutical products and dietary supplements development with natural ingredient.</p> Suttida Wittanalai Copyright (c) 2022 PSRU Journal of Science and Technology 2022-04-25 2022-04-25 7 1 83 99 AN EXPERIMENT TO MEASURE THE INTERNAL RESISTANCE OF A MULTIMETER ON THE TINKERCAD PROGRAM <p>This paper presents an experiment to measure the internal resistance of a multimeter in the Tinkercad program. This multimeter has three operating modes: ohmmeter mode, ammeter mode and voltmeter mode. The experiment is designed using a DC voltage source in ohmmeter mode as the input signal to the resistance to be measured. The relationship of the variables in a circuit is arranged in the form of a linear equation. The resistance analysis of the multimeter in each mode can be determined from the slope of the curve. The results showed that the ohmmeter mode and the ammeter mode have internal resistances of 100±1 mW and 100±33 mW, respectively, which are very low values. The voltmeter mode has an internal resistance of 100±1 MW which is very high resistance. It is also found that the ohmmeter mode has the 1.00±0.01 V DC voltage source. The properties of the resulting curves have good linearity. These experiments are suitable for applying to the experimental kit of students in the fields of electrical-electronics, physics and measurement technology.</p> Ratchanoo Katman Noppadon Sisuk Anucha Kaewpoonsuk Copyright (c) 2022 PSRU Journal of Science and Technology 2022-04-25 2022-04-25 7 1 100 116 PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING, ACUTE TOXICITY AGAINST SKIN IRRITATION AND CORROSION IN RABBITS OF AQUEOUS FABRIC DYE FROM BOUEA BURMANICA GRIFF. LEAF EXTRACT <p>The objectives of this research are to evaluate the phytochemical screening and acute toxicity against skin irritation and corrosion in rabbits from aqueous extract of <em>Bouea burmanica</em> Griff. leaves. Phytochemical screening indicated the present of 4 groups of compound including phenolics, tannins, triterpenes and anthraquinones. Acute skin irritation and corrosion toxicity test in rabbits of the aqueous extract from the leaves of <em>B. burmanica</em> at the amount of 0.5±0.05 ml showed no swelling or redness of the skin in both rabbits at 24, 48 and 72 hours after application of the test material and over the entire period 14 days of the test. The redness and swelling index of rabbit skin at the first 72 hours after application of the test material was 0 indicated that the aqueous extract from the leaves of <em>B. burmanica</em> was not irritating to rabbit skin. In addition, no behavioral abnormalities and clinical signs were observed during 14 days after application of the test material. No rabbits were found dead or in pain during the testing period. The results of this study showed that the aqueous extract from the leaves of the <em>B. burmanica</em> did not cause acute toxicity against skin irritation and corrosion in rabbits.</p> Pattawat Seekhaw Nuengruethai Nearmayhom Naruemon Promla Kunchit na wichian Aranya Jutiviboonsuk Copyright (c) 2022 PSRU Journal of Science and Technology 2022-04-25 2022-04-25 7 1 117 128 DEVELOPMENT OF RICE GERM POWDER FORTIFIED PROTEIN <p>In this current research, we aimed at preparing the rice germ powder, developing the rice germ fortified protein, and exploring the proximate analysis. The different processes between preparation of cooked combined rice germ powder and rice germ powder mixed with traditional recipe of Naresuan Organic Agricultural Occupation Promotion Group (Wat Phrik, Phitsanulok) were also compared. The results revealed that the adsorption and solubility abilities of mixed rice germ powder obtained by the cooked method were 1.72 and 4.20 times higher than that of the original one. In terms of developing prototype of protein-enriched combined rice germ powder by adding soy protein at five different dosage levels i.e., 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 % (w/w) and analyzing chemical composition, adding 10% soy protein provided higher protein content than traditional formula product, indicating that it is comparable to commercial rice germ powder products, The results of this study could be used as a guideline to enhance the nutritional value of combined rice germ powder products.</p> Sirirat Phanruang Phennapha Thongnoi Orawan Buabdee Copyright (c) 2022 PSRU Journal of Science and Technology 2022-04-25 2022-04-25 7 1 129 139