PSRU Journal of Science and Technology <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; PSRU Journal of Science and Technology is a peer-reviewed journal of Faculty of Science and Technology, Pibulsongkram Rajabhat University. The journal devoted to publish of&nbsp; original research article and review article in science and technology. The journal is indexed in TCI Tier 2.</p> <p>Three issues are published a year (January-April, June-August and September-December).</p> <p>Online ISSN 2672-9741</p> <p>Print ISSN 2465-5112</p> คณะวิทยาศาสตร์และเทคโนโลยี มหาวิทยาลัยราชภัฏพิบูลสงคราม en-US PSRU Journal of Science and Technology 2465-5112 <p>กองบรรณาธิการขอสงวนสิทธิ์ในการปรับปรุงแก้ไขตัวอักษรและคำสะกดต่างๆ ที่ไม่ถูกต้อง และต้นฉบับที่ได้รับการตีพิมพ์ในวารสาร PSRU Journal of Science and Technology ถือเป็นกรรมสิทธิ์ของคณะวิทยาศาสตร์และเทคโนโลยี มหาวิทยาลัยราชภัฏพิบูลสงคราม และ<br>ผลการพิจารณาคัดเลือกบทความตีพิมพ์ในวารสารให้ถือมติของกองบรรณาธิการเป็นที่สิ้นสุด&nbsp;</p> KNOWLEDGE, BEHAVIOR AND AWARENESS OF FARMERS IN AGROCHEMICAL USE IN PHITSANULOK PROVINCE <p>This research aimed to study the level of knowledge, behavior of agrochemical uses and awareness of the dangers and its effects on agrochemical use among farmers in Muang District, Bang Krathum District, Wang Thong District, Bang Rakam District, Noen Maprang District and Phrom Phiram District, Phitsanulok Province. A questionnaire was used as a tool to collect data from 400 farmers with a convenience sampling method. The results showed that the farmers had a perception related to agrochemical use and its dangers with 52.75%. The information source of farmer perception was most received from agrochemical retailers, 72.51%. Most of the farmers had a moderate level of knowledge on agrochemical use and its dangers with 49.00%. Agrochemicals use and prevention behavior of farmers was at a moderate level (<em>x̄</em>=2.28±0.13). The farmer awareness of the dangers from agrochemical use was at a high level (<em>x̄</em>=4.18±0.05), which they were being most aware of the impacts on themselves (<em>x̄</em>=4.44±0.62), followed by awareness of the impacts on the environment (<em>x̄</em>=4.06±0.67) and awareness of the impacts on consumers (<em>x̄</em>=4.05±0.72), respectively. Therefore, promoting the correct knowledge, understanding and proper practices toward agrochemical use and prevention will lead to a reduction in the rate of sickness from rice farming and may be able to reduce the impact on consumers and the environment.</p> <p> </p> Thitiworada Khamjing Piyada Wachirawongsakorn Copyright (c) 2023 PSRU Journal of Science and Technology 2023-12-20 2023-12-20 8 3 1 19 HYDROTHERMAL SYNTHESIS OF TRICOBALT TETRAOXIDE AND CHARACTERIZATION <p>Tricobalt tetraoxide (Co<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub>) was prepared in this work by hydrothermal method using cobalt (II) nitrate hexahydrate as a starting material and sodium hydroxide as a reducing agent in an equimolar ratio. The reaction mixture was heated at 180<sup>°</sup>C for 1, 3, and 5 hours. Then calcination was heated at 500<sup>°</sup>C for 5 hours. The functional group of Co-O bond was studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)and appeared at 570 and 665 cm<sup>1</sup>. The morphology of the Co<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub> was studied by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) which revealed the aggregated shaped like a rice grain in shape with an average particle size of 0.5 micrometers. The crystalline structure was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. The Co<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub> was a cubic structure with a lattice constant, <em>a</em> = 8.1100 angstrom. The crystallite average sizes were 16.83, 19.12 and 20.84 nanometers, respectively. In the future, tricobalt tetraoxide will be utilized as an active ingredient to inhibit bacteria and fungi in plant pathogens.</p> Nuenghathai Chaiya Weerinradah Tapala Phetlada Kunthadee Nattapol Ladrodphan Tanin Tangkuaram Ratchadaporn Puntharod Copyright (c) 2023 PSRU Journal of Science and Technology 2023-12-20 2023-12-20 8 3 20 29 ARTIFICIAL DIETS PREFERENCE OF STINGLESS BEE, TETRAGONULA PEGDENI SCHWARZ <p>The objective of this research was to study the artificial diets preference of stingless bee (<em>Tetragonula pagdeni</em> Schwarz). The stingless bee nest was placed in the center of <br />the experimental house and surrounded by artificial diets in order to the stingless bee to choose preference of​ artificial diets. All 7 artificial diet formula were as follows: 1 water (control), <br />2 glucose (40 ml), 3 fructose (40 ml), 4 glucose (20 ml) + fructose (20 ml), 5 glucose (35 ml)+ soybean (20 g) + pollen (5 g), 6 fructose (35 ml) + soybean (20 g) + pollen (5 g) and 7 glucose <br />(32 ml) + fructose (32 ml) + soybean (20 g) + pollen (5 g). The results found that the artificial diet <br />7 (glucose + fructose + soybean + pollen) had the highest of number of stingless bee and was significantly effective (P&lt;0.05) when compared with the control. The number of stingless bees was 25.41 ± 0.90 adults/hour. Therefore, the use of artificial diet can replace natural diet during the rainy season when there is not enough food. Farmers can culture the stingless bee in order to obtain quality honey that will continue to create careers and income</p> Nathapong Matintarangson Duangduan Wattanuruk Copyright (c) 2023 PSRU Journal of Science and Technology 2023-12-20 2023-12-20 8 3 30 38 EFFECT OF TORREFACTION PROCESS ON THE COMBUSTION AND PYROLYSIS BEHAVIOUR OF RICE STRAW <p>Biomass is widely recognized as a renewable energy source that can be used as a substitute for fossil fuels. In order to comprehend and simulate combustion of biomass in large-scale furnaces and to effectively design and operate conversion systems, it is crucial to develop a comprehensive understanding of the pyrolysis characteristics and combustion kinetics. The objective of this study is to conduct a comparative analysis of the thermal properties and kinetic behaviour of raw rice straw and torrefied rice straw under both inert and oxidative atmospheres using thermogravimetric analyser. The results revealed that the lower temperature of initial combustion (T<sub>ic</sub>) for rice straw was found to be 249 °C, while T<sub>ic</sub> for torrefied rice straw was 252 °C. T<sub>ic</sub> serves as a critical parameter for ensuring the safe storage of both raw and torrefied rice straw. The Burnout temperature (T<sub>b</sub>) values for both raw and torrefied rice straw fell within <br />the range of 468 °C to 470 °C, indicating that all samples achieved complete combustion at the same temperature. The results showed that the degree of thermal decomposition is higher for the torrefied rice straw, which suggested that the sample was less reactive than raw rice straw. The findings of this study can facilitate the design of combustion reactors and the determination of optimal operating conditions for such reactors.</p> Thanaphon Wiangthong Padipan Tinprabath Prasert Wirotecheewan Nataporn Chindaprasert Copyright (c) 2023 PSRU Journal of Science and Technology 2023-12-20 2023-12-20 8 3 39 53 THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HOTSPOTS FROM OPEN FIELD BURNING OF RICE STRAW AND PM2.5 CHANGE IN NAKHONSAWAN PROVINCE <p>The purpose of this research was to investigate fire hotspots by using MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) satellite sensors carried on the Terra and Aqua satellite and use them to assess open field burning influencing fine particulate matters with a diameter less than 2.5 micrometers (PM 2.5) in Nakhon Sawan Province area. During the production year 2020 /2021, PM2.5 samples were collected daily for 24 hours at the Air Quality Monitoring Station in Pak Nam Pho sub-district, Mueang Nakhon Sawan district, Nakhon Sawan. The results showed that if all rice straw is burned in the production year 2020/2021, the amounts of PM 2.5 from in-season rice and off-season rice were approximately 10,075.86 kg and 1,461.46 kg, respectively. The highest hotspots in Nakhon Sawan province areas were observed in December, January, and February, respectively. The districts most vulnerable to burning in the agricultural areas were Nong Bua, Tha Tako and Phaisali. In addition, correlation analysis showed that hotspot numbers that appeared were correlated with PM2.5 levels in the ambient air. However, the study results could potentially be utilized for supporting information for establishing guidelines for effectively, rapidly and efficiently preventing and dealing with PM2.5 particulate concerns and burning in the paddy fields of Nakhon Sawan Province and Lower Northern Provincial Cluster.</p> Pativit Sarapin Tinnapan Netpae Rutairat Phothi Anuwat Sangon Chammalieng Chaothum Copyright (c) 2023 PSRU Journal of Science and Technology 2023-12-20 2023-12-20 8 3 54 68 DEVELOPMENT OF THE NATURAL RUBBER SPONGE MIXED PASSION FRUIT PEEL CHARCOAL POWDER TO PRODUCE CUSHIONS USING DESIGN OF EXPERIMENT <p>The aim of this research was to develop a composite formula of natural rubber sponge mixed passion fruit peel charcoal powder suitable for the production of cushions using <br />the design of experiment was a 2<sup>k</sup> full factorial design with 2 factors, that the quantity of sodium silicofluoride and the quantity of passion fruit peel charcoal powder. The tested ratios of sodium silicofluoride to passion fruit peel charcoal were 1 : 1, 0.5 : 15, 0.75 : 10, 0.5 : 5, and 1 : 15 grams, respectively. The study of factors affecting the density and shore 00 hardness properties, it was found that the quantity of passion fruit peel charcoal powder significantly affected the density. As for the factors affecting Shore 00 hardness, they were the quantity of sodium silicofluoride and the quantity of passion fruit peel charcoal powder. The most suitable composite formula for producing natural rubber sponge mixed passion fruit peel charcoal powder was determined to be the ratio of 1:15 grams. This formula exhibited the highest density and Shore 00 hardness properties, which is suitable for use in the production of cushions, with a prediction accuracy of up to 83.18%. From the research results, it can be used as information for preparing natural rubber sponge mixed passion fruit peel charcoal powder to produce cushions made from natural materials, environmentally friendly and helps reduce the amount of passion fruit peel waste from processing</p> Hathainuch Janchaiyaphoom Suwimon Theakthum Copyright (c) 2023 PSRU Journal of Science and Technology 2023-12-20 2023-12-20 8 3 69 81 OPTIMIZATION CONDITIONS FOR OIL EXTRACTION FROM PASSION FRUIT SEEDS USED FOR BIODIESEL PRODUCTION APPLICATION <p>Passion fruit seeds are a waste of industrial production of passion fruit juice which are a source of several biomolecules such as carbohydrate protein lipid and fiber. The aim of this research was to investigate the optimal conditions of oil extraction from the passion fruit seeds by solvent and ultrasound-assisted extraction (50/60 Hz) and to assess of oil properties for biodiesel production feedstock. The experiment was performed to examine the type of solvent as ethyl acetate, hexane, petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol and methanol, passion fruit seed to solvent ratio as 1 : 4, 1 : 5, 1 : 6, 1 : 8, 1 : 10, and 1 : 12, extraction time as 10, 15, 20, 25,and 30 min and extraction temperature as 30, 40 50 and 60 ◦C. The optimal conditions were ethyl acetate, passion fruit seed to solvent ratio of 1 : 12, extraction time of 25 min and extraction temperature at 30<sup>◦</sup>C, and the highest extracted oil yield was 23.36 % (wt./wt.), and kinetic viscosity of 53.60 mm<sup>2 </sup>s<sup>-1</sup>, density of 0.92 kg l<sup>-1</sup> and free fatty acid of 0.54%. The passion fruit seed oil has enough qualification and a potential to be used as biodiesel feedstock</p> Salinee Phonmat Sukanya Chandaeng Rujirat Kitleartpornpiroat Likhit Noichaisin Jakkaphun Nanaum Copyright (c) 2023 PSRU Journal of Science and Technology 2023-12-20 2023-12-20 8 3 82 96 THE SIMPLE DETERMINATION OF FAVIPIRAVIR USING BARE GLASSY CARBON ELECTRODE <p>The determination of favipiravir for antiviral COVID-19 using a bare glassy carbon electrode was successfully operated by the electrooxidation reaction of the favipiravir. The reaction process was recorded by cyclic voltammetry while the amperometric technique was used for favipiravir quantitation. Analytical parameters such as applied potential, supporting electrolytes, and pH were varied. The optimum condition was found to be +1.30 V, Na<sub>2</sub>B<sub>4</sub>O<sub>7</sub> – NaOH buffer, and pH 10.20, respectively. The electrochemical sensor was characteristic studied and it showed a linear range of 0.25 µM to 500.0 µM (y (µA)=0.0326x(µM) + 0.1547) with a limit of detection of 0.13 µM favipiravir (S/N=3). This technique exhibited high repeatability at 4.64 %RSD and the interference such as NaCl was unaffected. It was successful in analyzing favipiravir in real samples with high accuracy as the relative error was lower than 1.96 percent. From the results of the research, this sensor can be used to measure the amount of favipiravir in tablet samples to benefit consumers</p> Kamonporn Prasertpornsut Nuenghathai Chaiya Anchana Preechaworapun Jiraporn Kitikul Tanin Tangkuaram Copyright (c) 2023 PSRU Journal of Science and Technology 2023-12-20 2023-12-20 8 3 97 112 บทบรรณาธิการ <p>บทบรรณาธิการ</p> Copyright (c) 2023 PSRU Journal of Science and Technology 2023-12-20 2023-12-20 8 3 สารบัญ <p>สารบัญ</p> Copyright (c) 2023 PSRU Journal of Science and Technology 2023-12-20 2023-12-20 8 3